Grunch of Giants by R. Buckminster "Bucky" Fuller
Grunch of Giants
by R. Buckminster "Bucky" Fuller
I dedicate this book to three women: one of the nineteenth and two of the
twentieth centuries. First, to my great aunt, Margaret Fuller Assoli, who with
Ralph Waldo Emerson co-edited the Transcendentalist magazine, the Dial,
and was the first to publish Thoreau and herself authored Woman in the
I am sure Margaret would and probably does join in my enthusiastic support
and co-dedication of this book to Marilyn Ferguson, author of The Aquarian
Conspiracy, and to Barbara Marx Hubbard, founder of the Committee for the
Future, for their effective inspiration to the young world to do its own
thinking and to act in accordance therewith.
- ASTRO-AGE DAVID'S SLING
- HEADS OR TAILS WE WIN, INC.
- INVISIBLE KNOW-HOW, INC.
- PAPER-INTO-GOLD ALCHEMISTS
- CAN'T FOOL COSMIC COMPUTER
There exists a realizable, evolutionary alternative to our being either
atom-bombed into extinction or crowding ourselves off the planet. The
alternative is the computer-persuadable veering of big business from its
weaponry fixation to accommodation of all humanity at an aerospace level of
technology, with the vastly larger, far more enduringly profitable for all,
entirely new World Livingry Service Industry. It is statistically evident that
the more advanced the living standard, the lower the birth rate.
It is essential that anyone reading this book know at the outset that the
author is apolitical. I was convinced in 1927 that humanity's most fundamental
survival problems could never be solved by politics. Nineteen twentyseven was
the year when a human first flew alone across an ocean in one day.(In 1944, the
DC-4 started flying secret war-ferryings across both the Atlantic and Pacific
oceans. In 1961, jet airliners put the ocean passenger ships out of business. In
1981, the world-around airlines flew over a billion and a half scheduled
passenger miles and carried hundreds of millions of ton-miles of freight.) This
was the obvious beginning of the swift integration of all humanity, groups of
whose members for all their previous millions of years on planet Earth had been
so remotely deployed from one another that they existed as separate nations with
ways of life approximately unknown to one another. It was obvious that the
integration would require enormous amounts of energy. It was obvious that the
fossil fuels were exhaustible. It was obvious that a minority of selfish humans
would organize themselves to exploit the majority's transitional dilemmas. I was
convinced that within the twentieth century, all of humanity on our planet would
enter a period of total crisis. I could see that there was an alternative to
politics and its ever more wasteful, warring, and inherently vain attempts to
solve one-sidedly all humanity's basic economic and social problems.
That alternative was through invention, development, and reduction to the
physically working stages of massproduction prototypes of each member of a
complete family of intercomplementary artifacts, structurally, mechanically,
chemically, metallurgically, electromagnetically, and cybernetically designed to
provide so much performance per each erg of energy, pound of material, and
second of time invested as to make it eminently feasible and practicable to
provide a sustainable standard of living for all humanity more advanced,
pleasing, and increasingly productive than any ever experienced or dreamed of by
anyone in all history. It was clear that this advanced level could be entirely
sustained by the many derivatives of our daily income of Sun energy. It was
clear that it could be attained and maintained by artifacts that would
emancipate humans from piped, wired, and metered exploitation of the many by the
few. This family of artifacts leading to such comprehensive human success I
identified as livingry in contradistinction to politics' weaponry.
I called it technologically reforming the environment instead of trying
politically to reform the people. (I explain that concept in great detail in the
latter part of this book. I also elucidated it in my book Critical Path,
published in 1981 by St. Martin's Press.)
Equally important, I set about fifty-five years ago (1927) to see what a
penniless, unknown human individual with a dependent wife and newborn child
might be able to do effectively on behalf of all humanity in realistically
developing such an alternative program. Being human, I made all the mistakes
there were to be made, but I learned to learn by realistic recognition of the
constituent facts of the mistake-making and attempted to understand what the
uncovered truths were trying to teach me.
In my Philadelphia archives there are approximately forty thousand articles
published during the last sixty years which successively document my progressive
completions of the whole intercomplementary family of scheduled artifacts. These
livingry items include the following:
Tensegrity: The continuous-tension/discontinuous-compression
structuring principle of Universe (i.e., stars not touching planets, electrons
not touching their atomic nuclei) introduced to planet Earth to replace the
continuously compressioned, secondarily tensioned structuring in present
world-around engineering theory. Designed, 1929; prototyped, 1929.
The Dymaxion House: The autonomous, mass-producible,
air-deliverable dwelling machine weighing only 3 percent of its equivolumed
and equipped, conventional counterpart, single-family dwelling. Designed,
1927; modeled, 1928; helicopter-delivered, 1954.
The one-piece, 250-pound bathroom: Designed, 1928; prototyped,
1936; mass-produced in polyester fiberglass in West Germany, 1970.
Synergetics: Exploration and publishing of the fourdimensional
geometrical coordinate system employed by nature. (See Synergetics
and Synergetics II [New York: Macmillan, 1975, 1979].) Discovered,
1927; published, 1944.
Dymaxion World Map: Discovery and development of a new
cartographic projection system by which humanity can view the map of the whole
planet Earth as oneworld island in one-world ocean, without any visible
distortion in the relative size and shape of any of the land masses and
without any breaks in the continental contours. This is the undistorted map
for studying world problems and displaying in their true proportion resources
and other data. Discovered, 1933; published, 1943.
World Game: A grand-strategy program developing the design science
of solving all problems with artifacts, invented by self or others, which take
advantage of all scientific and technological development through studies of
their effects on the total world's social and economic affairs as
ascertainable from the Dymaxion SkyOcean World Map. A means of assessing the
feasibility of realizing various initiatives in solving world problems.
Invented, 1927; applied, 1928.
Trends and Transformation Charts: These depict the total history
of all the metallurgical, chemical, electromagnetic, structural, and
mechanical trendings to greater performance per given amounts of given
materials, time, and energy. A compendium of all the scenarios of science and
technology's evoluting advances. Chronological chart of total history of
scientific discoveries and technical inventions. Chronological chart of the
mining of all metals and recirculation of the scrap of those metals.
Chronological charts of all major industries' performances assessed in terms
of per capita human use. These charts, begun in 1928; first published, 1937,
at Bureau of Standards, Washington, D.C.; published in Nine Chains to the
Moon, 1938; published in Fortune magazine's tenth anniversary
issue, 1940. This issue of Fortune went into three printings and took
Fortune from red- to black-ink status. It changed U.S.A. and world
economic health assessment from a tonnage criteria to one based on energy
The Dymaxion Omnitransport (for land, air, water-surface, and
submarine travel): The first full-scale working prototype stage of which was
the Dymaxion car, produced to test the crosswind ground-taxiing behaviors of
an omni-streamlined, ultimately to be twin-orientablejet-stilts-flown,
wingless flying device, which would take off and land like an eagle or duck,
without any prepared landing fields (similar in principle to the forty-yearslater
descent and takeoff, multijet system of the Apollo Moon Landing craft).
Designed, 1927; prototyped, 1933.
Geodesic Domes: The unlimited-size, clear-span structures to
accommodate both humanity's converging and deploying activities. Invented,
1938; prototyped, 1947. Since then, over 300,000 have been produced and
installed around the world from northernmost Greenland to the exact South
Pole; over 100,000 installed in children's playgrounds.
Octet Truss: The flooring or roofing structure for unlimited
spanning. Designed, 1933; prototyped, 1949.
The Fog Gun: The pneumatic means of cleaning human body, dishes,
clothing, etc., without plumbing's pipedin water supply. Designed, 1927;
Compact, odorless toilet equipment: For conversion of human wastes
into methane gas and fertilizer. Designed, 1928; proven in India; now being
refined for production use.
Carbon blocks-inserted, copper disc-brakes: Invented and
successfully demonstrated at Phelps Dodge, 1937.
Bunsen-burner-melted, water-cooled centrifuge: For processing
low-grade tin ore. Invented and successfully demonstrated at Phelps Dodge,
Hanging bookshelves, and other furniture: Invented, 1928;
Modeling of all geometric developments of energetic-synergetic geometry:
Including tensegrity models of all geometrical structures and the hierarchy of
primitive structural systems. The minimum, all-space-filling module. The
foldable, seven unique great-circle models. The tetrahelixes. Discovered,
1927; demonstrated, 1936.
Twin-hull rowing and sailing devices: Invented, 1938; prototyped,
Triangular geodesic framing of ocean-sailing hulls: Invented,
1948; successfully demonstrated, I.O.R. racing sloop Imp, 1979.
Very frequently I hear or read of my artifacts adjudged by critics as being
"failures," because I did not get them into mass-production and
"make money with them." Such money-making-as-criteria-of-success
critics do not realize that money-making was never my goal. I learned very early
and painfully that you have to decide at the outset whether you are trying to
make money or to make sense, as they are mutually exclusive. I saw that nature
has various categories of unique gestation lags between conception of something
and its birth. In humans, conception to birth is nine months. In electronics, it
is two years between inventive conception and industrialized production. In
aeronautics, it is five years between invention and operating use. In
automobiles, it is ten years between conception and mass-production. In
railroading, the gestation is fifteen years. In big-city skyscraper
construction, the gestational lag is twenty-five years. For instance, it was
twenty-five years between the accidental falling of a steel bar into fresh
cement and the practical use of steel-reinforced concrete in major buildings.
Dependent on the size and situation, the period of gestation in the
single-family residences varies between fifty and seventy-five years.
Because of these lags, the earlier I could introduce the conception model,
the earlier its birth could take place. I assumed that the birth into everyday
life of the livingry artifacts whose working conceptual prototypes I was
producing would be governed by those respective-category gestation lags. I
assumed my livingry inventions' progressive adoptions by society would occur
only in emergencies. I called this "emergence through emergency." For
all of humanity to begin to break away from its conditioned reflexes regarding
living facilities (home customs and styles), allowing them to be advantaged by
my livingry artifacts, would take at minimum a half century to get underway.
Since this was clearly a half-to-three-quartersof-a-century undertaking, I saw
at the outset that I best not attempt it if I was not content to go along with
My first publication was in 1927, a bound, mimeographed book entitled 4-D,
standing for "fourth dimension." I put on the cover, "Two billion
new homes will be required by humanity in the next eighty years."
Five years after I undertook the program in 1927, Fortune magazine
in July 1932 featured my Dymaxion House in an article written by Archibald
MacLeish on "The Industry Industry Missed: The Mass-Production Housing
Industry." They were not aware of the complexity of the development. They
had not discovered the different gestation rates of industrial evolution's
diverse product categories. Fortune described clearly what had happened, but
Fortune's writers were completely unschooled in dealing with that which had not
yet happened. My 1927 Dymaxion House had excited many into trying to make money
by being the first in the mass-production house industry, not knowing it would
take a completely new prototype and a half-century before across-the-board
evolution was ready for it. A group of prominent industrialists led by one of my
young fans had incorporated "General Houses," and that was all it took
to get Fortune excited.
- Thirteen years later, in 1945, Fortune again featured my
scientific dwelling the Fuller House prototype only one of which I had
produced, for the United States Air Force in Beech Aircraft's Wichita, Kansas,
plant. Fortune and many others were sure that this was to be an
immediate mass-production success and, more importantly to them, a
After Beech's production-engineering department had carefully analyzed the
prototype and priced out its tooling costs, they tendered a firm bid to the
Fuller House Company to produce replicas of this prototype in quantities of no
less than 20,000 per year, at a base, f.o.b. Wichita factory price of $1,800,
minus the kitchen and laundry equipment, to be furnished by General Electric for
another $400 each. But Beech's bid required that $10 million for tooling would
have to be provided by others. Beech already had Wichita banks' backing of $10
million for their post-World War II private corporate plane production.
The first Beech-produced Fuller House was widely publicized. Soon 36,000
unsolicited orders, many with checks attached, were received for the Fuller
House. At this point it was discovered that no distributing industry existed.
The general building contractors had none of the complex tools for
several-in-one-day deliveries of the dwelling machines. None of the building
codes would permit their erection. The severest blow of all was that both the
national electricians and plumber's organizations said they would have to be
paid to take apart all the prefabricated and pre-installed wiring and plumbing,
and put it together again, else they would not connect the otherwise "ready
to live in" house to the town's or city's electrical lines and water mains.
They held exclusively the official license to do this by long-time politically
enacted laws. No banks were willing to provide mortgages to cover the sale of
the Fuller Houses.
Fortune made the mistake of assuming that "the industry
industry missed" had at last come of age. But evolution's inauguration of
the "livingry" industry had to wait until capitalism had graduated,
from its for-centuries-held assumption that physical land property constituted
capitalism itself, to the startling realization that the strictly metaphysical,
technological "know-how" had become the most profitable property as
the key to exploitation of the invisible industries of chemistry, metallurgy,
electromagnetics, and atomics.
Reorganizing all its strategies, capitalism has now unloaded its real estate
property onto the people by refusing to rent and forcing people to buy their
condo or coop homes. Evolution had to wait upon the governmentguaranteed,
forty-year mortgage-financing of housing's costs to exceed humans' financial
capability to acquire. Evolution had to wait until the U.S. mass-production of
automobiles exclusively as a money-making business had been made obsolete by the
technological felicity of manufacturing by other countries' producers, thus
leaving U.S. productivity to reorient itself to the necessity of rehousing all
humanity in mass-produced, aerospace-level-of-technology livingry.
Evolution was clearly intent on postponing the inception of the livingry
service industry until humanity had graduated from its pre-twentieth century
condition as a planet of remote nations to an integrated global society, all of
which waited upon completion of a world-around network of highways, airlines,
and telephones, and automobiles and jumbo jet airplanes. All these evolutionary
events (requisite to the livingry industry) have now taken place or are about to
take place in the very near future. If the political systems do not eliminate
humanity with their weapons, the half-century-gestating, world-around livingry
service-industry will soon be born.
When the leader of a chain of hand-holding skaters suddenly turns in a tight
circle, he sweeps the entire chain into a circle-describing pattern, with each
successive skater circling at a greater radius from him. Since the greater the
radius the 3.14159 times greater the circumferential distance to be traveled,
the accumulated momentum of the chain imparts ever greater acceleration to the
hintermost of the original chain, which centrifugal force in turn breaks the
hand-gripping and causes the hintermost individual skaters to successively break
away at great speed. This fast spin-off they must cope with as best they may.
When a physics teacher wishes to demonstrate the fundamentals of wave
behavior to his class, he often fixes a secure hook onto the wall and fastens
the end of, for example, a ten-foot-long piece of rope to the hook. Then, going
to the other end of the rope, he pulls it not quite tightly, leaving just a
little slack in it. He then whips the rope end ceilingward, then floorward,
followed by a final jerk ceilingward. This whips a wave into the rope. This wave
goes all the way to the wall hook where it turns around and returns to the
teacher's hand and stops. This demonstrates that a wave always closes back to
its starting point to complete a cycle. If the teacher leaves more slack in the
rope, the wave has greater height and depth lengths.
In the first million years of humans on planet Earth, we have the phase one
ice-skater's spin-off pattern deploying humans to unknown,
remote-from-one-another lands. In the twentieth century, we have the phase two
physics teacher's wave returning upon itself to complete its cycle.
First we have the phase one, world-around deployment of humanity on foot,
animals, and rafts. In phase two, we have the world-around sailing ship
explorers, then the royal mail steamships, followed successively by the cable,
the wireless telegraphy, the telephone, the airlines, the satellite-relayed,
around-the-world wireless telephony, and the world-around skybuses: all of
which, unnoticed by political society, have been inexorably, completely
integrating the five-centuries-earlier, utterly remotely existing,
As a scientist I am greatly interested in all that goes on in the
political-economic scene and in the impact of one unforeseen technological
evolutionary event after another upon that scene. I see one minuscule computer
chip completely altering the whole world scene. As the half-century of utterly
unpredicted technological discoveries has occurred, accompanied by an ever
greater familiarity with all the world by all humanity, I have become
increasingly confident that my fifty-four-years-ago judgments were sound.
I do not look upon human beings as good or bad. I don't think of my feet as a
right foot and a wrong foot. My feet are exactly the inside-out reverse of each
other in physical patterning (pull the rubber glove off one hand, insideouting
it, and find it fits the other hand). Physics has found no straight lines
only waves. All courses are steered by alternate right and left veering. I see
the human scene in the same way. There have to be humans to perform all the
right-left evolutionary interfunctionings.
I am a student of the effectiveness of the technological evolution in its all
unexpected alterations of the preoccupations of humanity and in its all
unexpected alterings of human behaviors and prospects.
I do know that technologically humanity now has the opportunity, for the
first time in its history, to operate our planet in such a manner as to support
and accommodate all humanity at a substantially more advanced standard of living
than any humans have ever experienced.
This is possible not because we have found more physical resources. We have
always had enough resources. What has happened that now makes the difference is
that we have vastly increased our know-how of specialized innovations, all of
which invisible realization integrates to make possible success for all.
I also know that this can be realized only by a technological revolution
involving total Spaceship Earth, using all the resources and know-how as an
integrated regenerative system, as in the design of any successful seagoing ship
or of any biological organism.
Spaceship Earth now has 150 admirals. The five admirals in the staterooms
immediately above the ship's fuel tanks claim that they own the oil. The
admirals with staterooms surrounding the ship's kitchen, dining rooms, and food
refrigerators claim they own all the food. Those with a stateroom next to a
lifeboat claim that they own the lifeboat, and so forth. They then have an
onboard game called balance of trade. Very shortly the majority of admirals have
a deficit balance. All the while the starboard-side admirals are secretly
planning to list the boat to port far enough to drown the portside admirals,
while the portside admirals are secretly trying to list the boat to starboard
far enough to drown the starboard-side admirals. Nobody is paying any attention
to operating the ship or steering it to some port. They run out of food and
fuel. They discover that they can no longer reach a port of supply. Finis.
Humanity is now experiencing history's most difficult evolutionary
transformation. We are moving away from a rooted life-style with a 95-percent
rate of illiteracy. We are almost unconsciously drifting away from self-identity
with our ages-long, physically-remote-from-one-another existence as 150
separate, sovereign nations. Now the uprooted humans of all nations are
spontaneously deploying into their physically integrated highways and airways
and satellite-relayed telephone speakways, into a big-city way-stationed,
world-around living system.
We may soon be atom-bombed into extinction by the preemptive folly of the
political puppet administrators fronting for the exclusively-for-money-making,
supranational corporations' weaponry industry of the now hopelessly bankrupt
greatest-weapons-manufacturing nation (the U.S.A.).
If not bomb-terminated, we are on our ever swifter way to becoming an
omni-integrated, majorly literate, unified Spaceship Earth society.
The new human networks' emergence represents the natural evolutionary
expansion into the just completed, thirty-years-in - its-buildings
world-embracing, physical communications network. The new reorienting of human
networking constitutes the heart-and-mind-pumped flow of life and intellect into
the world arteries.
The world-integrating networking self-multiplies and accelerates. Never
traveling as a tourist, I myself have been induced into forty-eight complete
encirclements of our planet and everywhere I go I meet more and more people whom
I have met elsewhere around the world. Ever more widely traveling, literate,
well-informed individuals discover that they, and an ever faster increasing
number of other humans, are becoming intuitively aware that life is breaking
them out of the ages-long, anonymous life-patterning of the beehive drone. They
experience newborn hope that humans have indeed a destiny of individual
significance complementary to the integrity of other individuals.
The networking accelerates as does light in Einstein's equation E=Mc2. The
lower-case c is the symbol for the linear speed of light, 186,000 miles per
second. When not reflectively focused, light expands omni-radially as a sphere.
The rate of surface growth of a spherical wave system is always the second power
of the linear (radial) growth speed. That is why it is c2 in Einstein's
equation, which means 186,000 X 186,000 miles of spherical surface growth per
second. Since human thought can calculate in minutes what it takes light to
travel in one year, it may be that thought itself expands outwardly in all
directions at a speed even faster than light maybe in no time at all to
inter-network the people of our eight-thousandmile diameter spherical space
As the networking accelerates humanity into a spherically embracing,
spontaneous union, yesterday's locally autonomous, self-preoccupied governments
are left in the exclusive control of yesterday's most selfishly successful and
entrenched minorities. The present U.S.A. 1982 administration was elected by the
votes of only one-seventh of the U.S. population and it spent $170 million
more than five times the money raised by their opponents to buy their
victory. The networks' people, aware that a U.S. presidency costs $50 million, a
senatorship $10 million, and a representative's seat $5 million, observe that
the TV era governments are corrupt, wherefore they spontaneously abhor and
abstain from further voting.
Gradually discovering that the networking abandonment of the voting booth was
the true cause of their claimed "overwhelming majority," the incumbent
administration, fearful of a potential rejective voting tidal wave of the
inter-networked world people, will probably try in vain to block networking.
Because networking is apolitical and amorphous, it has no "cells" to
be attacked, as did the communism of former decades. The fearful sovereign
nation politicos will find that trying to arrest networking is like trying to
arrest the waves of the ocean.
As elucidated in Critical Path, the net resultant developmental
patterning of human affairs is always the progressively integrating product of:
- cosmic evolution;
- the integrated evolution of myriads of individual human
Both number one evolution and number two evolution conform strictly
to cosmic laws such as those governing gravity, radiation, and DNA-RNA's
biological, species and individual, formation-and-growth design governance.
Number one evolution directly follows the cosmic laws.
The individuals of number two evolution are generally unaware of the
cosmic laws and bumble their myriads of individually different ways into
progressively more complex scenarios, all of which are ultimately and
all-unknowingly both intercomplementary and governed by the same cosmic laws
controlling evolution number one's two interweaving components, i.e.
its certainties and its trial-anderror-conducted experimental
Humanity is an experimental initiative of Universe. The experiment
is to discover whether the complex of cosmic laws can maintain the integrity of
eternal regeneration while allowing the mind of the species homo sapiens on the
little planet Earth to discover and use some of the mathematical laws governing
the design of Universe, whereby those humans can by trial and error develop
subjectively from initial ignorance into satisfactorily informed, successful
local-Universe monitors of all physically and metaphysically critical
information and thereby serve objectively as satisfactory local-Universe
problem-solvers in sustaining the integrity of eternally regenerative Universe.
Trial-and-error-evolved steering wisdom does not accrue to shifting the
rudder angle violently leftward from an equally violent
rightward-course-steering error. Evolutionary advance in trial-and-error
steering systems is accomplished by successively more delicate
leftward-rightward correcting of swing-over error. This progressive reduction of
mechanical momentum must however be preceded by forthright acknowledgment of the
error and thereby of the truth which was being hidden by the erroneous
assumptions of yesterday's false self-pride rationalizing.
The function of local-in-Universe critical informationgathering and
local-in-Universe problem-solving is manifest in the forward cockpit of all
great airplanes. When the door to the pilots' and engineers' compartment is left
open, you may see a myriad of instruments covering all the walls and ceilings of
The dials of the cockpit instruments report optically and accurately all the
stress, strain, heat, pressure, velocity, ratios, and other significant
conditions of all critical parts of the airplane's air-frame, fuselage, wings,
rudders, landing gear, power plant, baggage compartment, and passenger space, as
well as of the interior and exterior temperatures, atmospheric pressure, etc.,
as well as all the instrumentally reported information regarding altitude and
the ever-changing geography of clouds, wind forces, and directions, as well as
all the electromagnetically received information regarding directions of all
surrounding airports and the flight path beam bearings, etc.
Through comprehensively synchronized control of this instrument-reported
information the captain may put the ship on "all automatic" flight as
his assistant pilots and engineers watch those dials and make appropriate
automatic control adjustments in response to the changing information. It is by
virtue of this information that the pilots and engineers are able to serve as
local problemsolvers in support of the integrity of their passengers' and their
own regenerative living integrity.
This same critical information-gathering and local problem-solving in
sustainment of the integrity of regenerative systems is also performed by the
electromagnetic instrumented airport tower controllers, who deal with a myriad
of variables of wind and speed directions, and aircraft holding, approaching,
landing, taking off, holdingready-to-take-off, on-field-runways-taxiing planes,
each plane worth millions of dollars, each packed full of beyond priceability
All these high-velocity, vast risk, complex pattern controls of pilots,
controllers, and engineers are special-case patterns of the generalized local
information-gathering and local problem-solving in support of the integrity of
All of the ecology on planet Earth, all the biosphere of planet Earth as well
as the radiated entropy and the gravitationally coordinated-and-cohered sentry
of the solar system and the Milky Way galaxy and the two billion other known
galaxies are all special-case manifests of the local-in-Universe
information-gathering and problemsolving in support of the synergetic integrity
of overlappingly episoded, eternal scenario Universe.
The function of local-Universe information-gathering and local-Universe
problem-solving is a generalized problem-and-solution complex, the solution of
which is mathematically expressed as the updated Einstein equation E = 2Mc2.
- this information-gathering and problem-solving function of humans on
little, local planet Earth is a cosmically generalized function;
- our experiencing of the coordinate integrity of nature's pattern of
initiating the growth of myriads of ecologically intercomplementary
biological species is scientifically sorted out; and
- nature's method of trial-and-error evolvement of the successive biological
types prospering most successfully under each unique evolutionarily
progressive environmental change demonstrates that preferredenvironment
technology eliminates survival only of the fittest;
we come to the full realization that the failures of humans on planet Earth
to fulfill satisfactorily and faithfully their generalized information-gathering
and local problemsolving in support of eternal regeneration of Universe simply
means death of this particular planetary installation of mind-endowed
individuals. The failure of humans means the function must be performed in
local-Universe by other phenomena capable of reliably serving the
informationagglomerating and problem-solving function. The eternal Universe show
must go on.
When individuals shunt the comprehensive cosmic regeneration into exclusive
advantaging of only their own survival and enjoyment and succeed in prolonged
local short-circuiting of cosmic regenerativity, they disqualify the invention
"human" as a reliable function of regenerative Universe. They are just
as irresponsible in the cosmic system as the company employees who pocket the
cash register contents for their own account. This is cosmically true of a
childless multimillionaire maneuvering himself into a position to make a big
profit involving "hardheaded," absolutely selfish decisions that will
knowingly and legally deprive many others of survival necessities "to
hell with the next generation" which deal will win him the applause of
other powerfully rich individuals because it makes them feel more comfortable
about their own summa cum selfishness.
If you ignorantly believe there's not enough life support available on planet
Earth for all humanity, then survival only of the fittest seems
self-flatteringly to warrant magnaselfishness. However, it is due only to
humans' born state of ignorance and the 99.99 percent invisibility of
technological capabilities that they do not recognize the vast abundance of
resources available to support all humanity at an omni-high standard of living.
We have now scientifically and incontrovertibly found that there is ample to
support all humanity. But humanity and its leaders have not yet learned so in
sufficiently convincing degree to reorient world affairs in such a manner as to
realize a sustainable high standard of living for all.
There are three powerful obstacles to humanity's realization of its
- The technical means of its accomplishment exist altogether in the
invisible realms of technology.
- The experts are all too narrowly specialized in developing the invisible
advance to envision the synergetic significance of integrating their own
field's advances with other fields' invisible advances.
- The utterly different, successful ways of metabolic accounting, dwelling,
self-employing, cooperating, and enjoying life are unfamiliar and nonobvious.
Because of ancient arms-accomplished seizure of land by the most physically
powerful and the subsequent arms induced blessing of the seizures by
power-ordained "ministers of God," royal deeds to land were written as
assumedly God-approved and guaranteed covenants.
Landlordism, first woven into the fabric of everyday life by royal fiat and
thousands of years of legal process precedent, has become an accepted cosmic
phenomenon as seemingly inevitable as the weather. Humans have learned to play
many of its games.
Land "ownership" and its omni-dependent comprehensive
thing-ownership involvements and their legal-documents-perpetuations constitute
the largest socioeconomic custom error presently being maintained by a large
world affairs-affecting segment of humanity.
Nothing new about all that. But what is new is that humanity has gone as far
as it can go with this significant error and is in final examination as to
whether it can free itself from its misconditioned reflex straightjacket in time
to pull out of its greatest-in-all-history, error-occasioned tailspinning into
We do have both the knowledge and the technical means to do so if we do it
quickly enough. That is what this book is about.
I smell the blood of a Britishman
Be he alive or be he dead
I'll grind his bones to make my bread.
There is no dictionary word for an army of invisible giants, one thousand
miles tall, with their arms interlinked, girding the planet Earth. Since there
exists just such an invisible, abstract, legal-contrivance army of giants, we
have invented the word GRUNCH as the group designation "a
grunch of giants." GR-UN-C-H, which stands for annual GROSS UNIVERSE CASH
HEIST, pays annual dividends of over one trillion U.S. dollars.
GRUNCH is engaged in the only-by-instrumentsreached-and-operated, entirely
invisible chemical, metallurgical, electronic, and cybernetic realms of reality.
GRUNCH's giants average thirty-four years of age, most having grown out of what
Eisenhower called the postWorld War II "military-industrial complex."
They are not the same as the pre-World War II international copper or tin
cartels. The grunch of giants consists of the corporately interlocked owners of
a vast invisible empire, which includes airwaves and satellites; plus a vast
visible empire, which includes all the only eighteen-year-old and younger
skyscraper cluster cities around the world, as well as the factories and
research laboratories remotely ringing the old cities and all the Oriental
industrial deployment, such as in Taiwan, South Korea, Malaysia, Hong Kong, and
Singapore. It controls the financial credit system of the noncommunist world
together with all the financial means of initiating any world-magnitude
mass-production and -distribution ventures. By making pregraduation employment
contracts with almost all promising university science students, it monopolizes
all the special theoretical know-how to exploit its vast inventory of already
acquired invisible know-how technology.
Who runs GRUNCH? Nobody knows. It controls all the world's banks. Even the
muted Swiss banks. It does what its lawyers tell it to. It maintains technical
legality, and is prepared to prove it. Its law firm is named Machiavelli,
Machiavelli, Atoms & Oil. Some think the second Mach is a cover for
GRUNCH didn't invent Universe. It didn't invent anything. It monopolizes
know-where and know-how but is devoid of know-why. It is preoccupied with
absolute selfishness and its guaranteed gratifications. It is as blind as its
Swiss banks are mute. Much, much more about GRUNCH later on.
When blimp photographs are taken of giant stadia packed full of rock-concert
or football fans, we get an idea of what 100,000 people look like. We all think
of Hiroshima as the worst single killing of humans by humans. That was about a
75,000-capacity-coliseum-full. Each day of each year, year after year, a
75,000-capacity-stadiumfull of around-the-world humans perish from starvation or
its side effects, despite an annual average 5-percent world food-production
overage of the amount of food adequate for the total world's population. This
daily kill of innocents dwarfs the awful Auschwitz killing.
GRUNCH did not bring this about, but it could very profitably bring it to an
end. Just because it is possible does not mean that it is easy. With the
computers' guidance, however, and some executive vision, courage, initiative,
and follow-through, it can be done very profitably in terms of money and lasting
kudos for GRUNCH and prohumanity enterprise. It would cost only 3 percent of
Grunch's annual dividend earnings to not only feed all those now starving to
death but also to alleviate the dire poverty around the entire planet, since the
population explosion is occurring strictly amongst impoverished people. Such a
world initiative on the part of Grunch would eliminate one of the two great
threats to humanity's continuance on planet Earth: nuclear bombing and
The great communism vs. capitalism, politico-economic world stand-off assumes
a fundamental inadequacy of life support to exist on our planet. So too do the
four major religions assume that it must be you or us, never enough for both.
Jointly the two political camps have spent $6.5 trillion in the last
thirty-three years to buy the capability to kill all humanity in one hour.
Jointly, we Earthians have always had adequate physical resources to take
care of all humanity but lacked the metaphysical know-how resources with which
to employ effectively the Earth's physical wealth. Adequate knowhow could only
accrue through trial-and-error experience combined with synergetically acquired
wisdom, altogether employed with absolute faith in the intellectual integrity
omni-lovingly governing regenerative Universe. However, in 1970 our cornucopia
of ever more swiftly accruing know-how overflowed and its content integrated
synergetically, so that we may now care for each Earthian individual at a
sustainable billionaire's level of affluence while living exclusively on less
than 1 percent of our planet's daily energy income from our cosmically designed
nuclear reactor, the Sun, optimally located 92 million safe miles away from us
and safely interlinked with us by photosynthesis, wind, rain, wave, and all
other weather behaviors.
In technology's "invisible" world, inventors continually increase
the quantity and quality of performed work per each volume or pound of material,
erg of energy, and unit of worker and "overhead" time invested in each
given increment of attained functional performance. This complex process we call
progressive ephemeralization. In 1970, the sum total of increases in overall
technological know-how and their comprehensive integration took humanity across
the epochal but invisible threshold into a state of technically realizable and
economically feasible universal success for all humanity.
This actual but invisible threshold crossing began in 1969 when humans'
scientific knowledge and technological ingenuity, backed exclusively by adequate
citizens' tax-raised government financing, learned how to do so much with so
little as to be able to place humans on the Moon and return them safely to
Earth. Other typical 1970 to 1980 manifests of our option to do so much with so
little as to be able to take care of all humanity were:
- The single-flight delivery and installation of a 140foot-diameter,
23,000-square-foot-floor-space, stainless steel and aluminum geodesic dome
at the mathematically exact South Pole of our planet, together with its
capability of carrying the snow loads of complete burial;
- The rocket-launched satellites able to relay Eartharound TV and other
- The solar system's planetary inspection by TV-communicating,
Earth-dispatched explorer satellites;
- The computer revolution, and its progressive miniaturization;
- The laser-beam and its many capabilities, such as its color-TV-reading of
polished disc records;
- MacCready' s successful human-muscle- powered, over-the-English-Channel
- His subsequent Paris-to-England, exclusively by direct-Sun-powered flight;
- That MacCready's ninety-five-foot-wingspan plane weighed only forty-five
pounds due to its carbon-fiber alloy structuring and mylar skinning.
In 1970 it could, for the first time, be engineeringly demonstrated that,
applying the most advanced knowhow to the conservation and use of the world's
resources, we can, within ten years of from-killingry-to-livingry reoriented
world production, have all humanity enjoying a sustainably higher standard of
living than any humans have ever heretofore experienced. It could further be
demonstrated that we can do this while simultaneously phasing out all further
Earthians' use of fossil fuels and atomic energy.
Humanity is so specialized and these epochally significant technological
facts are so invisible that it seems an almost hopeless matter to adequately
inform humanity that from now on, for the first time in history, it does not
have to be "you or me" there is now enough for "both"
and to convince humanity of this fact in time to permit it to exercise its
option and save itself.
There is now plenty for all. War is obsolete. It is imperative that we get
the word to all humanity RUSH before someone ignorantly pushes the
button that provokes pushing of all the buttons.
What makes so difficult the task of informing humanity of its newborn option
to realize success for all is the fact that all major religions and politics
thrive only on the for-all-ages-held, ignorantly adopted premise of the
existence of an eternal inadequacy of life-support inherent in the design of our
That it is possible for us all to win and how is what Grunch of
Giants is about.
2. ASTRO-AGE DAVID'S SLING
In each herd of wild horses there is a king stallion. Every once in a while a
young stallion is born bigger and more powerful than the herd's other colts.
When the new big colt matures, the king stallion engages him in battle.
Whichever one wins becomes the inseminator of the herd's mares. Darwin saw this
phenomenon as the way in which nature contrives to maintain the strongest, best
coordinated, most alert, and fastest strains in the species. Twentieth-century
racing stable operators progressively inbreed the fast-running genes. Nature
uses this progressive, only-by-generation-to-generation,
(DNA-RNA)-genes-concentrating method in selecting, evolving, and maintaining the
physically fittest biological types to serve the vast variety of planet Earth's
omniintercomplementary ecological regeneration functions to become operative
under each and every uniquely variant set of environmental conditions.
Nature employs the same solely-by-survival-through-successive-generations,
genes-concentrating principle when introducing humans into the complex
ecological scheme of intercomplementary regenerativity of life on planet Earth.
While nature undoubtedly initiated the installation of humans on planet Earth
with semi-giant leaderships, she had eventually to disclose to humans through
direct experience lessons that human muscle is naught as compared to the
competence of the mind-directed brain.
I acquired one of the most important of my life's working assumptions when I
undertook to answer my own 1927 self-questioning: "Why have humans been
included in the design of Universe?".
My hypothetical answer of 1927 was, and as yet is: What impresses me most is
the experientially demonstrable fact that all living organisms other than humans
have some organically integral equipment that gives them some inherent physical
advantage in coping with special environmental conditions a plant that can
and does thrive only under dense Amazon river jungle conditions a bird that
can fly beautifully while in the sky but which cannot divest itself of those
wings while awkwardly walking the fish having equipment to extract oxygen
from the water that dies out of water.
Common with many creatures humans have brains.
Brains of humans and other creatures are always and only coordinating and
memory-storing the information reported to their brains by internal and external
sensing devices regarding each special-case systemic experience.
But humans are given mind's access to objectively realizable mathematical
principles whereby humans can produce their own wings to outfly all the
special-case, integrally winged birds.
In addition to their brains humans have minds, possessed by no other known
Weightless, nonphysical minds are concerned with discovering the interrelated
significance of all-time humanity's thus-far-experientially-discovered and
experimentally-verified inventory of ever-experientially-redemonstrable,
only-mathematically-expressible cosmic design laws and of those laws' governance
of the multi-alternative freedoms of realization as mathematically incisive,
omnirational, variously magnituded, structurally associative and dissociative,
nonsimultaneous, and only omnicomplexedly intercomplementary, always and only
overlapping episodes altogether essential to eternally regenerative scenario
HUMANS: IF successfully evolved physiologically, psychologically, and
philosophically from their born-naked, helpless-for-months, no-experience state
of absolute ignorance to be progressively educated as driven only by innate
hunger, thirst, procreative instinct, and curiosity into initiative-takings can
thereby discover frequent errors of assumption, identification, or execution
wherewith, if the individual's innate courage and sense of the importance of
truth are greater than the sense of pride of the individual, error is admitted
thus only inadvertently uncovering that which is true which discovered truth may
prove to be both physically and metaphysically inspiringly advantageous
information suggesting ways of progressively improving physical life-support
systems and their environmental realizations together with their operational
information agenda whereafter, encouraged by experiencing the ensuing, more
favorable environmental circumstances accruing only to their ever abiding by the
spontaneous self-admonitions springing intuitively from their innate love of the
truth, the thus-inspired individuals persevere with integrity throughout some
hundred thousand generations of such only-by-trial-and-error conditioning with
each generation's intermatings of those mutually surviving under the evolving
environment and mutually educated exclusively by such artifacts-accomplished,
creative conversions of negative into positive circumstances and through those
regenerative matings to concentrate the DNA-RNA, exclusively angle and
frequency-controlled, structural and mechanical design programmings of the
creatively imagining faculties and their corresponding crafting dexterities
which with their inventing of words their metaphysical tools and
electromagnetic-spectrum communications accomplishments might in time attain and
sustain a semi-divine level of exclusively artifacts-realized, creative design
wisdom adequate to render the cosmic environment healthily supportive of all
humanity THEN shall humans discover that they have been included in Universe to
function: first, as local Universe information-harvesters; secondly, as critical
information-winnowers; thirdly, as generalized patterns-and-principles
discoverers; and fourthly, employing those principles objectively to serve as
local Universe problem-solvers in support of the integrity of eternally
regenerative, only overlappingly inter-episoded scenario Universe.
In order that humans might so evolvingly function, they were first given
brains and then access to mind.
As already mentioned but worth repeating, human brains, as with those of many
creatures, function always and only as coordinators of all the sense-apprehended
information regarding each special-case temporal experience, all of which
special-case experiences have beginnings and endings.
In contradistinction to brains, which are constructed of physical matter, the
weightless, matterless, metaphysical mind has the unique capability, from time
to time, to discover eternal interrelationships existing invisibly between
special-case experiences, which interrelationships cannot be discovered by any
or all of the brain's physical sense systems for instance, the mathematical
law governing gravity's invisibly cohering not only the Sun and its
multi-millions-of-miles-apart planets as discovered by the weightless invisible
conceptual thought-relaying from the mind of Kepler to Galileo to Newton and as
also cohering the never-anywhere-intertouching parts of local Universe systems
of galaxies, and electrons remote from their nuclei.
The relative interattractiveness invisibly operative between any two
remote-from-one-another cosmic bodies, as compared to any other pair of cosmic
bodies, equally distanced from one another, is proportional to the
multiplicative product of the respective couple's masses, and the
interattractiveness of any pair of celestial bodies varies inversely as the
second power of the distance between them. Halve the intervening distance and
the interattractiveness increases fourfold.
Human minds were given the semi-divine capability to discover and employ some
of the only-mathematicallycommunicable eternal laws governing the design of
eternally regenerative Universe itself.
When I was born in 1895 humanity was 95-percent illiterate and needed
leaders. Today the situation is reversed. Humanity is now 65-percent literate
and capable of doing its own thinking, decision-making, and initiativetaking.
Returning to the genetic evolution and the history of humans aboard our
planet, we observe that only by the genes-concentrating of successive
generations of survivormatings were design-produced the best all-around
average-size humans for average as well as special environmental conditions.
Both giants and pygmies were designevolved for coping with extremes of
Bare-handed giants could physically overwhelm both bare-handed average humans
and pygmies, except when the littler ones escaped into caves or thickets through
entryways too small for giants.
People think of the size of people in terms of height. Mathematics shows,
however, that if we double human height while maintaining equal proportionment
we have four times as much surface (skin) and eight times as much volume (flesh
and bone weight). "Twice as big" is really eight times as big.
Giants were indeed overpowering.
Tools are the only-intermittently-used, noncorporeal extensions of integral
functioning capabilities of biological species. Spider webs are tool extensions
of spiders. Nests are short-term tool extensions of birds whose regenerative
functioning occupies only a minor fraction of their lifetime activity. In order
to be light enough to be able to fly, the birds must physically separate out all
those of their overall essential lifetime functions not continuously required in
their survival and development. Momentarily containing both embryo and
nutriment, eggs are externalizable, system-separable, new-life-gestation tools
which together with insulating nests provide the means by which the mother bird
may fly unencumbered to seek out the worm or insect-packaged
energy-intake-as-heat to be transferred to the embryo inside the heat conductive
eggshell in its heat-conserving nest and do so before the eggs become too cold.
Later she brings the worms and insects directly to the hatched chicks
themselves, secure in their heat-conserving nest an environment-controlling
Nests and eggs are indeed tools, as is the womb an only-once-in-a-while,
carried-with-mammalian , new-lifeproduction tool. Mammals don't have to fly so
they can carry tools integrally, internally, as do they also carry their hearts,
livers, and other continuously interlinked high-frequency-of-use tools. All
tools exist in Universe only as essential functional components of development
programs of living organisms.
A cut-off finger can be swiftly stuck back onto the hand to seemingly
function again as an apparently integral part of the organism. The comprehensive
fact, however, is that nothing in Universe touches anything else. There are no solids.
There are, in fact, no things. There are only complex
critical-proximity and -frequency, unique event aggregates
interoperative in pure principle. The event electron is as remote from
its nuclear events as is the Moon from the Earth as size-referenced to their
respective event diameters.
Biological organisms, like all systems in Universe, are constituted of
locally interregenerative functions in pure principle. So too with all species.
Humans have a vast range of overall essential functionings whose frequency and
duration of use can be developed either as integral or non-integral, inorganic
or organic tool-extensions of their pounding, cutting, scratching, marking,
formative, or transformative and transportive functions of survival and
Simple tool-inventing, such as picking up a stone to throw in self-defense,
requires only the brain's instinctive functioning. Almost everywhere stones lie
ready to serve as heavier "fists" for powerful, but only occasionally
needed, punching, pounding, or smashing. Mind, which alone comprehends the
complex interaction of principles, is required to anticipatorily invent
stone-throwing slings, spring-loaded catapults, or bow-and-arrows archery.
Tools of self-defense or aggressive warfare, called weapons, frequently
embody principles that can be constructively rather than destructively employed.
Beyond even that, they can solve positively the originally negative,
aggression-aggravating problem a basic precept of design science.
Conversely, ballpoint pens, carried with us in our breast pockets because so
frequently used, can be employed either constructively to write a life-saving
prescription or destructively as a dagger. My hearing aids and my eyeglasses are
more permanent components of my awake hours than are millions of daily
dying-and-being-replaced protoplasmic cells of which my flesh is constructed
otherwise I could not lose a pound a day. My eyeglasses and hearing aids
together weigh only a quarter of a pound. The same tool can become the
extensions of many individuals, and for longer years than human generations.
Bridges and transcontinental highways are universally social tools.
Airplanes are mutually interchangeable human flying tools. There are
metaphysical as well as physical tools. Mathematics are metaphysical tools.
Inter-relevant metaphysical informations are tools. The Massachusetts Institute
of Technology's Department of Mathematics states officially: "Mathematics
is the science of structure and pattern in general." Physical structures
are tools. Mathematics makes possible the synergetic organization of
metaphysical information which can be progressively objectivized as
pattern-controlling or evolving tools systems which can advantageously alter the
physical environmental circumstances of human existence.
The comprehensive name for the omni-interrelated significance of all physical
and metaphysical tools is "technology." All technology is governed by
generalized physical laws. All of these can be physically demonstrated and
mathematically expressed. The physical Universe itself is omnitechnology a
complex of various frequencies of intercomplementary functions altogether
producing nonsimultaneous, multi-frequenced, multimagnituded, only overlappingly
inter-episoded, eternal regeneration.
Man-made laws, legal agreements, royal fiats are not tools. Man-made laws and
customs are not technology. They are political power ploys, originally
instituted only by-physical-might-asserted and -sustained "rights."
Corporations are not tools. They are conventionally accepted power-proclaimed
There are two fundamental types of tools: those which can be produced by one
human unaided in any way physically or metaphysically by any other humans and
those which could not be invented, developed, or operated by one human alone.
The latter, multi-human-involvement tools, are the industrial tools.
The solo-evolved tools are craft tools. The solodeveloped craft tools can be
complex and even powered, as by a harnessed creature or a dammed stream of
water. Craft tools used as weapons make it possible for physically small humans
to overwhelm physically either big humans or even bigger animals tiger
pitfall traps are one example.
This brings us to the slaying of the giant Goliath by David and to the
generalized principle of brain-mastered brawn by mind-mastered brain, of the
metaphysical mastering the physical.
This in turn brings us to the present confrontation of humanity by the Grunch
of Giants the supranational corporate conglomerates the greatest giants
in all history invisibly "Rough-Riding" planet Earth. While you can
see their skyscrapers and factories, these are only the physical properties
occupied by the human-drone workers employed by the elusively invisible
3. HEADS OR TAILS WE WIN, INC.
Corporations are neither physical nor metaphysical phenomena. They are
socioeconomic ploys legally enacted game-playing agreed upon only
between overwhelmingly powerful socioeconomic individuals and by them imposed
upon human society and its all unwitting members. How can little humans
successfully cope with this greatest of all history's invisible Grunch of
nonhuman Giants? First of all, we humans must comprehend the giants' games and
game-playing equipment, rules and scoring systems. But before we can comprehend
their game-playing, we must study the history and development of giants
One of my many-years-ago friends, long since deceased, was a giant, a member
of the Morgan family. He said to me: "Bucky, I am very fond of you, so I am
sorry to have to tell you that you will never be a success. You go around
explaining in simple terms that which people have not been comprehending, when
the first law of success is, 'Never make things simple when you can make them
So, despite his well-meaning advice, here I go explaining giants.
In addition to the B.C. David and Goliath theme, we have the A.D. 800 story
of Roland (Childe Roland), legendary son of Charlemagne's sister Gilles. There
are many poetical chronicles of young Roland's enfances (a very young
person's heroic exploits), such as vanquishing giants one named Ferragus and
another Eaumont. From the eighth to the seventeenth century, many variations of
the story occur, published in Latin, Italian, French, and English.
Much esteemed in Italy, Roland was known there as "Orlando Furioso"
the order of the name's first two letters is reversed from ro to or
as immortalized in the A.D. 1502 poem by Ludovico Ariosto.
The first comprehensive chronicling of Roland was written in Latin by Turpin,
Archbishop of Reims, before A.D. 800. Roland (or Orlando) is mentioned by Dante
in his Paradiso and is the subject of songs sung at the Battle of
Hastings in the Chanson de Roland (c. A.D. 1100). Shakespeare mentions
him in King Lear.
With the advent of radio and television, the children's Mother Goose-type
storybooks of yesterday have been progressively abandoned. Few people today are
familiar with the thousand-year-old story of the roaring of the giant as Roland
approached his tower: "Fee-fie-fo-fum/ I smell the blood of an Englishman/
Be he alive/ Or be he dead/ I'll grind his bones/ To make my bread."
Supreme horse-mounted monarchs in the days of Roland could and did award vast
hunting and farming lands to their horse-mounted blood kin and military
henchmen, who together hunted their lands and had them cultivated by on-foot,
tithe-paying tenant farmers.
In ancient North China a new kind of giant had developed long, long before
Roland's time a three-component-parts giant, i.e., the little man, with a club,
mounted on a horse who could and did overwhelm the big, onfoot,
tribe-leading shepherd. This new composite giant, the horse-mounted bully, could
divert to his sole advantage as much as he wanted of the life-support
productivity of the on-foot peasantry.(Pa ys = land; ped = foot = ped
ant = pa ys antry = peasantry = combination of on the land and on
foot = pa y of lands = pa of patriot = pa of
pagans = patois = po-gan, pa-gan peasantry.)
The horse-mounted, clubwielding bully asserted as do the
twentieth-century racketeers that he owned the land on which the shepherds
were grazing their sheep or the farmers were growing their crops. There was no
way in which the shepherd could realistically contradict the bully. Each night,
many of the shepherd's sheep disappeared until the shepherd agreed to
"accept" the horse-mounted bully's "protection." This was
the origin of "property." The most powerful amongst the leaders of
gangs of horsemen became the emperor.
The emperor rewarded his henchmen with deeds to the land in proportion to the
deeds at arms they performed for him.
There is no historical record of religion founders who have been so bold as
to assert that God had deeded land to anyone. History shows that religious
leaders have, however, frequently complied with their king's instructions to
plant a cross or other symbol of God's approval of their king's
sword-accomplished vast lands-seizure and ownership-claiming.
Over thirty thousand years ago, these prehistoric horsemounted
"landowners" began expanding their territory northwardly and
westwardly beyond the Himalayas into Mongolia and then ever westward into
Also, starting at least thirty thousand years ago, South Pacific islanders
and south and northeast continental Asians came to the West Coast of North,
Central, and South America from the Orient by rafts swept along by the Japan
Current. Many if not most of the rafted Southeast Asians colonized the West
Coast of the Americas and islands of the east Pacific. The current then returned
some of the rafters to Southeast Asia, as Thor Heyerdahl demonstrated with his
raft Kon-Tiki. This circum-Pacific ovaling of the Japan Current raft-travel
outlined the Polynesian world within which was spoken a commonly based language.
The Polynesians became the world's water people. Polynesia comprised more than
one-quarter of the planet Earth. The great West Coast mountain ranges and
deserts slowed both the North and South American coastal, raft-landed colonists'
eastward migrations. Landed at many North and South American coastal points from
Alaska to Chile, these raft-landed Polynesians separated into many groups as
they moved eastward over many routes to both North and South America, to become
known as the American Indians.
As water people, the Indians assumed that the "Great Spirit" (not
an anthropomorphic God) gave them fishing, hunting, and cultivating rights, but
never ownership of land. Obviously, to them, only the Great Spirit could own the
land. Centuries later the Indians thought they were selling the Europeans only
fishing and hunting licenses, not property rights. These were water people. No
sailor can think realistically of "owning" a specific area of the ever
transforming oceanic waters. Many pirates tried vainly to do so.
We have, historically, two prime, oppositely directed world-encirclings, both
starting about thirty thousand years ago: (1) from the Orient via water,
eastbound from Southeast Asia, and (2) westbound via land from northeast Asia.
Mastery of all the sea finally went to one landbased nation after another.
Millennia after the first club-swinging Oriental horseman claimed land
ownership, the man on the horse westbound from the Orient to Europe became
helmeted and armored in metal. Due to the horses' weight-carrying limit and the
penalty of weight on the horses' speed, the most effective of the horse and
armored riders was, like the present-day jockey, the wiry, strong, little man.
Inspection of the European museums' armor discloses the diminutive size of the
most successful knights. The main significance of what we are learning is that,
to the man on foot, the horse-mounted and armed men became a new and formidable
Because the armored knight required many helping hands to mount him and
maintain his horses and arms, he had to have their goodwill and support lest his
helpers overwhelm him when dismounted and encased in his armor. As a
consequence, the little, wiry man in horsemounted armor frequently became the
champion of traveling bands of the little people. The little armored knight was
more maneuverably effective than the armored giant when the latter's multifolded
weight overburdened his mount.
As a special consequence of this trending, we have the nongigantic,
successfully armored King Arthur's Round Table Knights, who used their mounted
and armed might to rectify wrongs wrought against people by local bullies and
clumsily armored, horse-mounted landowners.
Arms, armor, precious stones, skins, furs, fabrics, spices, incense,
hand-looms, and other hand-tools were the principal goods traded in Roland's
time. Gold, silver, and pewter served as money. Trading was accomplished on
foot, on the backs of animals, or on river-borne small craft. The land of the
overlord was the principal wealth.
Squads of armed horsemen could protect caravans of goods-carrying horses,
camels, and elephants along with human bearers. These caravans could transport
the initially culture-evolved riches of the Orient westward to the ever more
westwardly advancing frontiers of humanity, where the newly powerful cultures
could acquire the historically recognized appurtenances of Oriental courts of
A new kind of wealth-making occurs historically with the invention and
development of stoutly and heavily keeled, ribbed, and planked,
high-seas-keeping, deep-bellied, and, in much later times, cannon-armed sailing
These great ships were built in vertical shorings. Their keels were laid upon
heavy wooden cross-ties and blocked against premature sliding. These cross-tie
"ways" led down very gently sloped banks into the harbor's deep
waters. When the ships' hull was completed and watertight, the cross-tie ways
were greased and the blockings mauled out from under the ship. Gravity slid the
ship swiftly seaward, maintaining its vertical balance long enough to plunge it
deck-side-skyward into the water.
After launching, the ship was floated progressively into a succession of
wooden crane-equipped outfitting docks the interior decks and bulkheading
dock; the chain-plating dock; the mast-stepping dock; the rigging and
sail-bending-on dock; the winch-, capstan-, and armaments-installing dock.
Finally she sailed away to various lands where superior masts, fabrics, ropes,
etc., progressively replaced the original make-do equipment. (World's best masts
from the Pacific Coast of British Columbia; best rope-making fiber from Manila,
in the Philippine Islands; best cotton fiber for the sails from Egypt; best
teakwood for the decks from Thailand.) It took complete circumnavigation to
incorporate the "best in the world" of everything to produce a
"gallant" ship one capable of around-the-world sailing.
It is probable that the first moving-line shipyard in history was established
on the Chao Phraya River in Bangkok. However, the earliest now known militarily
secure shipyard is to be found on the Greek island of Milos. It is in a
miniature rock-walled fjord, well hidden from enemies by a deep-channeled,
curved entrance. On the many rock platforms lining the fjord's walls, many
shipbuilding artifacts were found. The Milos shipbuilding fjord was so well
hidden that the Germans used it for their Aegean Sea submarine hideaway during
World War II. (The Venus de Milo, now in the Louvre in Paris, came from
History's next great moving-line shipyard is as yet to be found in Venice. So
strategically important was the Venice shipyard that it was initially seized by
Napoleon early in his campaigning.
Centuries later this progressively moved-forward-andadded-to shipbuilding
pattern as yet clearly evidenced in the Venice shipyard became the prototype for
all of massproduction industry's "moving lines."
The ship was, of course, a tool, but not a craft tool produced by one man. It
was an industrial tool, massproducible and operable only by large numbers of
highly skilled craftsmen, metalworkers, woodworkers, sailclothmakers,
rope-makers, iron chain- and anchor-makers, seasoned sailors, and the
coordinated muscle of "all hands." The merchant ship was a
wind-energized industry, a tool that could sail around the world and carry
cargoes worth many fortunes to lands not containing the materials brought by the
ships, which when integrated with the home-port-occurring materials produced
real wealth of increased life-support for more and more people.
The building, rigging, and arming of such vessels and the production of the
materials with which to build them, as well as the production of the food and
other necessities to feed and clothe all those engaged in the shipbuilding,
required an effectively powerful military authority able to command the
full-time commitment of the work and skills of the large numbers of humans
involved. It also called for the amassing of large sums of negotiable wealth.
Preferably the negotiable wealth was in the form of trade-implementing precious
metals and jewels, commercially acceptable around the world.
For ages earlier the negotiable wealth had been the efficiently demonstrable
products of labor and its produce, the grains and the livestock. Of the latter,
the proteinamassed cattle constituted the most concentrated possible yet
maneuverable realization of actual life-support wealth. Cattle were put up as
collateral for the banker's loan of gold, silver, and copper coinage. When the
voyage was successfully completed, the merchant-ship venturers repaid the banker
and paid the banker his "interest" in the form of calves that had been
interimly produced by the collateraled cattle. This was called "payment in
kind" kind being the kinder or "children" of
the cattle. When bankers eliminated live cattle as collateral and dealt only in
gold or silver, there were no gold coins being bred by gold coins as calves had
been by cows, so interest was taken out of the capital gold by diminishing the
equity of the borrower when he repaid his debt. The banker's interest was cut
out of that is, deducted from the depositor's original
"cap"-ital (head of cattle) stake.
As I made clear in Operating Manual for Spaceship Earth, when the farmer or
cattlemen producers of "real wealth" of one hundred forward days of
life support each for one hundred people i.e., one thousand man-days of
life-support deposited their monetary specie equivalent in the bank and the
banker loaned it out at 10 percent, it meant that the banker stole one hundred
man-days of life support from the farmer depositor instead of providing the
farmers the bank-advertised "safekeeping." The banker could hide this
situation by price increase in the profits the banks made by using the
depositor's real wealth units. But the depositor's dollar could buy him ever
less real lifesupport units.
The safe return of the merchant venturer's ships was so unpredictable as to
constitute a capital investment of high risk but also of very high potential
gain most significantly a risk whose rewarding payoff might take several
"crop" seasons to realize. The voyage might take several or even many
years to complete. These risks in turn could be lessened by insurance.
As a consequence of all the foregoing, a half-millennium after Roland a new
and overwhelmingly greater form of invisible seagoing and land-strutting giants
appeared on planet Earth. This was a legally contrived, abstract giant
"legal" because the physically uncontradictable "topsword"
king decreed it was legal. Having the most favored privileges accorded real
humans, the giant, abstract, corporate "man" is inventively created in
1390 in England. (The corporate "human" may have been invented in
ancient Babylon to cover the potentates' voyaging venture, but we have as yet no
written record of such.) "His" abstract name is the "Merchant
Venturers Society." This composite man was formed by the king of England
with a small group of his very powerful friends, who lorded over their
By royal prerogative, the venture-financing riskers could not be held liable
for any losses of the venture. With limited liability, individuals might sue the
company but not the human individuals who underwrote the venture If the
enterprise failed and went bankrupt, its shareholders lost their ventured stake
but were not to be held responsible in any way for its debts. The creditors of
the company were the losers, and not the shareholders. Bankruptcy could reflect
no credit stigma upon the companies' shareholders. The shareholders were held
absolutely blameless for any misfortunes of their ships' crew or for damage
caused by collision of their ship with another ship. If the ship and its cargo
were lost, the shareholders lost their original shares, but no more. As long as
the ship operated successfully, the shareholders shared its trading profits
Whether the ship was lost or not, the banker who loaned the gold for the
merchant ship's trading held the life-support-producing lands and their cattle
as collateral. Since many voyages ended in disaster, the banker occupied a
long-time, steadily profitable position in the overall merchant venturing
and as yet does.
Naturally, the shareholder's limited-liability advantage, granted by
sovereign decree, encouraged a swift expansion of such enterprises.
In 1522 Magellan's ship demonstrated that the world is not a laterally
extended plane off the edge of which a ship might plunge, nor an ocean extended
laterally to infinity from which there was no return. Magellan's ship's
circumvoyaging proved that the Earth is a sphere a closed system with
enormous trade-monopolizing potentials. Laws of the land could not be enforced
on the sea. The seagoers were outlaws privateers or pirateers. The most
powerful outlaws became the sovereigns of the ocean sea.
In 1580, Queen Elizabeth was the largest shareholder in Sir Francis Drake's
merchant ship The Golden Hind. Naturally, the queen granted Drake's
venture "legal" freedom from liability. After paying Elizabeth her
conspicuously major share, Drake and his other shareholders each realized almost
5,000 percent profit on their risked capital.
Enthusiastic over her Golden Hind venture, in 1600 Queen Elizabeth
chartered the limited-liability East India Company. This time the shareholders
acquired shares in a fleet of ships, docks, and warehouses in both England and
India not shares in just one ship, as in the earlier "venturing."
Employing her sovereign power, Elizabeth limited the losses of its chartered
riskers to their initial monetary or equivalent capital stakes, while continuing
their right to receive their proportional profit dividends for as long as the
venturing company might exist in perpetuity.
Known later in England as "Ltd." (for "limited
liability"), in France as "Societe en Commandite," in Germany as
"Kommanditgesellschaft," and as "Corporation" under the
U.S.A.'s "Inc." (for incorporated) status, this newborn abstract legal
giant was to be treated as a human personality, empowered to do anything humans
can do but also accredited to operate as an abstract, legal entity able to enter
or leave any nation without a passport. As such it was able to employ millions
of people and any amount of money, tools, buildings, and equipment, and to
perform its giant acts anywhere about the oceanic world exclusively for the
profit in perpetuity only of its shareholders.
When the Fourteenth Amendment to the U.S.A. Constitution was passed in the
post-Civil War railroad-expansion days, the U.S. Supreme Court required that the
individual states grant the corporation all the privileges and protection
granted to human citizens. A hundred years later, in 1980, the U.S. Supreme
Court ruled that a corporation had the same rights of free speech as all U.S.
To allow its corporate bodies to make a colossal new grab, Grunch has ordered
its pet puppets to take over the world ocean-bottom resources. As of February
1982, the United States, Britain, France, and West Germany have reached
preliminary agreement to bypass the stalled Law of the Sea Conference and
proceed with development of seabed mineral resources, the Japanese foreign
ministry said. Japan expressed opposition to the agreement unconfirmed by
the four other countries and said such a program should operate under U.N.
auspices. The United States and other developed countries have refused to agree
to developing nations' demands that seabed development be overseen by a U.N.
agency dominated by the poorer countries.
The fourteenth-, fifteenth-, and sixteenth-century rulers who instituted and
empowered those abstract corporate giants were able to popularize their acts by
celebrating the visual wealth of goods it brought to their country and to the
political satisfaction of their many citizens. The profit to society was visibly
distributed as the goods, services, museums, and public-place rarities the
enterprising produced. The shareholders' dividend checks were invisibly
With the battle of Trafalgar in 1805, the risk-capital powers backing the
"British Empire" became the "Sovereigns of the Seas." Until
that time the high-sea venturers had carried gold and silver as their trading
medium. This induced world-around high-seas piracy. The behind-thescenes masters
of the British Empire then invented the annual balance of trade" as a
world-around bookkeeping system which kept its gold off the seas and instead,
after the year-end tallying of the trade interactions, transferred the gold from
one country's London vault to another country's London vault. This withdrew the
gold from the seagoing pirate's reach. However, it brought many of the pirates
into the financial districts of great cities.
Naturally, shareholding in Ltd. enterprise became increasingly attractive as
an investment risk, but soon the monetary size of investment required for share
participation grew beyond the acquisition means of all but the wealthy.
Stock-exchange brokers, for their own convenience, imposed trading only in
hundred-share "lots" or "blocks," which quickly raised the
equity-purchasing increments to so great a price that only the very wealthy
could any longer participate in such venture-sharing. The capital games'
playing-rules "kept the pikers out," the original pikers being the
on-foot, pike-bearing castle guards.
In the nineteenth century the limited-liability corporate venturing began not
only putting its shipyard donkey engines' steam engines in ships, but also
mounting them on steel wheels on rails and powering them out of the shipyards.
Thus they began railroading heavy loads inland. This initiated new
mass-production industry centers at inland water-power sites. For instance,
industrial venturing underwrote water-wheel-driven mass-yardage cottonmill
fabric production, preferably in such low-wage-paying countries as India. The
annual balance-of-trade accounting brought about many obviously inequitable
economic conditions, such as, for instance, India's burlapbag-makers working for
a penny a day. It was the vast profits made on burlap bags so produced which
financed the early-twentieth-century expansion of the Massachusetts Institute of
Technology in the U.S.A.
Such cotton and woolen fabric production-venturing was logically followed by
thread and needles, pins, buttons, and small hardware mass-production
moving-line ventures. With the introduction of electricity and the
electricity-driven motor, industry began moving-line massproduction of dollar
watches, tin cans, safety razor blades, big-city clothing-production sweatshops,
then bicycles, then motor cars. In World War I, it introduced steel steamship
mass-production; in World War II, transoceanic aircraft mass-production; and, in
the "cold," puppet-nation-waged war (World War III), extraterrestrial
travel and transport, and mass-production of invisible mass-killingry potential.
There is a fundamental evolutionary patterning in which, with each new era
and phase of technology and social-economic venturing, both the tools and their
products get bigger and bigger, and the numbers of humans involved multiplies. A
period of doing more with more until a mammoth peak magnitude is attained which
is followed by evolutionary production of ever more effective results with ever
less pounds of material, ergs of energy, and seconds of time, all of which
integrating synergy produces ever more comprehensively effective tools with ever
smaller technological artifacts produced by ever fewer unskilled human workers
the 1895 to 1929 model "T" waxing to the 1960s Cadillac limo, then
waning to the 1980 Japanese Honda.
For example, trans-ocean traffic brought into use ever more gargantuan ocean
liners leading eventually to the five-day-Atlantic-crossing leviathans, such as
the 81,000ton Queen Mary and her sister ship the Queen Elizabeth.
Using the World War II technology's new, lightweight, high-strength,
saltwater-impervious aluminum alloys in her superstructures the S.S. United
States was built to carry the same number of passengers and the same amount
of cargo, and to cross the Atlantic at the same speed as the Queen Mary,
though weighing only forty-five thousand tons, that is, 55 percent of the weight
of the Queens.
These five-day-Atlantic-crossing passenger carriers are now obsolete. In
1961, three jet airplanes outperformed the S.S. United States in
carrying capacity, in hours instead of days and at less expense.
In 1980, ever lighter, swifter "liner" type steamships are being
built, but only for luxury cruise ships. For twenty years, these obsolete ocean
liners have been progressively replaced by ten-to-thirty ton, one-third-of-aday-transatlantic-crossing
Another example of the little-to-big-to-little evolution is manifest in the
world of mathematical computing. In developing trigonometry and its solution by
logarithms, thousand of monks worked for hundreds of years to produce the
one-degree tables of sines, cosines, tangents, and cotangents. During the Great
Depression years of 1930 to 1936 the British and German mathematicians were
hired by their governments in a joint project to calculate the table of
functions to a one-minute of arc exactitude. Then came the big post-World War II
calculating machines, Univac et al., filling whole university buildings with
thousands of thermionic tubes. Then came the tubeless transistor and computers
weighing and bulking far less, until we came to printed circuits and
"chips" and table-top equipment doing better work than the
whole-building-filling equipment. Before all this, I myself spent two
pre-calculator or -computer years carrying out the trigonometric calculations
for geodesic domes. I had to do so "longhand." Then appeared
seventy-five-pound electric calculating machines, followed by the pocket-size
computers with which the trigonometric problems that took me two years of work
became solvable in one day by one person.
This process promises within a few years to become so miniaturized and so
comprehensively capable as to be the size of a hearing aid, though able to
interact with all the world-around computers and able to discern how best to
operate our planet, making obsolete the opinions of corporate or government
As mass-capital-venturing flourished after World War I, General Foods Company
absorbed many pre-World War I individually owned, independent mass-producers of
canned and packaged food. General Electric acquired other successful electrical
goods manufacturers. The growth of corporate venture activity was, however, at
that time yet identified by unique product categories.
After World War II, "mergers and acquisitions" and outright
"takeovers" agglomerated almost all successful industrial capital
ventures, regardless of their class of produced goods and services. The great
conglomerates found it more profitable, safer, and more credit-powerful to
diversify their risking. The successful "biggies" became ever more
gargantuan for example, the Dupont chemical company's 1981 acquisition of
Conoco, America's ninthlargest oil company, for $7.57 billion, to form the
seventhlargest industrial corporation in the U.S. Because many of these
conglomerations embraced all the national defense weaponry production, they
"legally" qualified for guaranteed government "bailout"
should their operation become financially "embarrassed" or debts
unmeetable. The U S government's decade-ago bailout of Lockheed Aircraft or its
multibillion-dollar guaranteed loan to private Chrysler Corporation (the
government's military-tank producer) are the current outstanding examples.
4. INVISIBLE KNOW-HOW, INC.
As mentioned earlier, limited-liability, abstract corporate
"beings" needed no passports to travel altogether invisibly across
national borders. Soon after World War II, America's five hundred largest
corporations became supranational, taking with them (out of the United States)
the invisible legal controls over what had been born as American industry with
all its "know-how." The knowhow had been paid for initially by the
U.S. people through their government's wartime (or "on the brink of
wartimes") underwriting of the prime technologies as initially developed
only for the U.S. Department of Defense or the Manhattan Project or the space
program, developed in wartime at government ("we the people's")
expense and turned over gratis for "operational efficiency" in
"peacetime" to privately owned corporations.
World War I brought vast munitions-buying on credit by the U.S. government,
and the figures ran into multi-millions of dollars as private U.S. industrial
corporations acquired postwar operational rights to all the wartime
government-financed new-era technology production machinery. Stockholders
prospered. World War II saw the same U.S. government credit employed to produce
"multi-vaster" new-technology munitions, with the dollar figures
running this time into the multi-billions of dollars. World War III's
third-of-a-century of "cold-warring" between the U.S.A. and U.S.S.R.,
waged vicariously through many hot-war puppeted nations, has seen the annual
munitions figures running into the multi-trillions of dollars. The U.S.A. 1981
"national" debt is over a trillion dollars, and the U.S. cannot pay
even the interest on that debt. We can very properly call World War I the
million-dollar war and World War II the billion-dollar war and World War III the
In the meantime, all the industrial research and development as well as its
products have become involved with the invisible technologies of atomics,
electronics, chemistry, molecular alloying, and information processing. All the
research and development of all the products and services that are going to
affect all of our forward days are now being conducted in the realm of the
electromagnetic spectrum "reality" not directly apprehendible by any
of the human senses.
While the North American-situated factories and spectacular city buildings
seem to be and are thought of by humans as being American property because they
are located on American land, most are no longer U.S.A.people-owned. For
instance, though thought of as "American," a majority of the
skyscrapers of Honolulu belong to Japanese bankers. Arabian oil billionaires own
many U.S. city skyscrapers. Kuwait owns the large South Carolina coastal island
What was once world-around high credit for American ingenuity and
friendliness is no longer existent. On February 1, 1982, the United States
ambassador to the United Nations stated to the media that all the "United
Nations now hate the U.S.A." What they hate is Grunch, but Grunch is able
to deceive the world into blaming the very innocent people of the United States.
All the continental U.S.A.'s industrial factories and grounds and 90 percent
of all that can and does produce physical wealth has already become or is about
to become the humanly invisible property of inhumanly operative supranational
corporations controlled by the invisible human owners of invisible Swiss bank
account code numbers.
A vast new giant of approximately no-risk capitalism is now astride the
world. "Earning" over a trillion dollars a year, this supranational
giant's monopoly over know-how, wealth, research and development, and production
and distribution facilities is worth at least $20 trillion (U.S.A. dollars,
September 1981). While the giant now owns and controls four-fifths of the planet
Earth's open-market bankable assets, $1 trillion of those giant's assets are in
monetary gold bullion. Astride spherical Spaceship Earth, the supranational
corporate Grunch of Giants faces a political giant of noncapitalistic forces
controlling the lives of two-thirds of humanity.
In making these observations in regard to inanimate corporations we do not
infer antisocial attitudes on the part of the corporate officers. A
corporation's executives are elected by its board of directors. The directors
are elected by the number of shares of stock as voted directly by their holders
or as voted by the holders of their share's proxies. This voting is not on a
democratic one stockholder/one vote basis but on an as-many-votes-as-sharesowned
basis. This being so, the corporations' lawyers have no alternative to reminding
any altruistic, socially concerned executives that the corporation is committed
by law only to making money for its shareholders, and therefore that any
socially concerned, altruistic proclivities of any corporate executive must be
realized outside the corporation and at the executive's own expense. For all the
same basic reasons, the inanimate, literally soulless and heartless corporations
cannot feel and express human sensitivities and thoughts, such as I find printed
on desk-top cards in my hotel rooms around the world. I find it specious for a
hotel chain to assume the role of moral arbiter by, for instance, printing cards
displayed in their hotel rooms which define "love" as being the act of
forbearance from stealing the hotel's towels or by exploiting the public concern
over energy problems by asserting on their room cards that "love is saving
the electric current costs." Since the corporation is only a legal device,
the only possible reason for paying those "love" cards' printing costs
is to reduce the hotels' operating costs, thus hopefully to increase the
corporate dividends. Such operational tricks may well bring about promotion for
the "ingenious" executives who conceive them.
In the August 3, 1981, issue of Time appeared the following article:
President [Reagan] appointed William Baxter, a Stanford law professor who
firmly believes in the virtues of large-scale enterprises unfettered by
excessive Government regulation, to be his antitrust chief in the Justice
Department. Baxter's boss, Attorney General William French Smith, succinctly
stated the new Administration's philosophy in an oft-quoted speech before the
District of Columbia Bar. Said Smith: "Bigness in business is not
necessarily badness. Efficient firms should not be hobbled under the guise of
Baxter openly accepts some responsibility for the merger phenomenon. Said
he last week: "The statements we've made at the Justice Department have
allowed people to think about mergers that they really wouldn't have thought
about in past Administrations." Mobil's bid for Conoco is a case in
point. Such a merger between two of the top ten petroleum companies would
never have been seriously considered during Jimmy Carter's term. Baxter
insists that his trustbusters will not allow any acquisition that
significantly reduces competition within the oil industry or any other. He
also maintains that a Mobil-Conoco combination would be subjected to tough
scrutiny in Washington. [That is one reason why the subsequent alternative
deal which united non-oil Dupont and oil Conoco was countenanced R.B.F.]
Baxter should be wary if only because the American public has long been
apprehensive about excessive corporate power. [Attorney General Smith] admits,
"The strains of populist hostility toward large companies are deeply
ingrained in the U.S.A. Government trustbusters have enjoyed broad public
support as they attacked both concentration within an industry and
combinations between corporate giants in unrelated business." Yet the
burgeoning growth of corporate America has outpaced all the antitrust efforts.
Since World War II, the portion of U.S. industry controlled by the 200 largest
manufacturing firms has risen from 45% to 60%. [Socioeconomically, that is
from majority to minority control R.B.F.]
The attorney general chooses his words carefully. What he speaks of as U.S.
industry is not the ownership of the corporations conducting the industrial
activity; he speaks exclusively of the physical production activity itself
taking place under the roofs of factory buildings situated within the
geographical borders of the U.S. of North America. The capital title to and
productive earnings of these are 60-percent owned and controlled by the entirely
unknown majority owners of the escaped-from-America, supranational corporations
One-third of humanity lives outside the lands controlled by socialism. All
unbeknownst to and undetected by the one-fifth of the one-third of humanity
residenced within the U.S.A., gradually cross-breeding "worldians,"
their one-third-of-a-century-ago kudos for realistically articulated generosity
to and concern for others, as well as the U.S. peoples' legal ownership and
control of their economic assets, have been altogether exploited, usurped, or
stolen from them by the invisibly integrated supranational corporate giants. The
Grunch has conducted its ruthlessly selfish activity always in the name of the
The now majorly literate crossbreeding world humans are now looking askance
at both the socialist and capitalist giants as these politically opposed powers
multiply their to-anywhere-deliverable, humanity-annihilating bombs.
"Modern weapons are growing so sophisticated and so small [ephemeralization
R.B.F.] that any future arms-control agreement would be impossible to monitor
and enforce," according to a Knight-Ridder News Service dispatch.
"What we are going to see ["experience" R.B.F.] in the next
generation of weapons is invisibility, which translates into insecurity,"
according to William Kincade, a former naval intelligence officer.
Even such an informed source as Admiral Stansfield Turner, former head of the
grand-naval-strategy-formulating U.S. Naval War College in Newport, Rhode
Island, then commander-in-chief of the U.S. Navy's Mediterranean fleet, and then
Director of the Central Intelligence Agency, says: "Any hope of limiting
total destructiveness is slipping past us."
In the affairs of the supranational corporate giants, real quality of
product, consciously sustained, has given way to packaging-allure and
advertising-proclaimed "quality" as commensurate only with the best
interests of corporate moneymaking. As already mentioned, heads of great
corporations are elected by the stockholders' directors, who in turn are chosen
by those controlling the majority of voting shares, who make their choices only
on the basis of greatest earnings performance. Operating only as abstract,
global-magnitude legal entities, all the unknown-owneredand-controlled
supranational corporations have no human-community consideration other than as
potential customers, consumers, or fighting-force conscriptees.
At the termination of his presidency, Eisenhower expressed his shocked dismay
over the exclusively self-concerned military-industrial complex that he had
found to be growing inexorably as a malignant economic organism. There is no
question of Eisenhower's innocence of such a phenomena as he assumed his great
responsibility. In the same way I am confident that Reagan is utterly unaware of
the existence, magnitude, and nature of the supranational colossus. He knows he
is dealing with rich and business-wise-proven individuals whose organizational
management effectiveness is of a high order. Because the colossus is operating
an invisible technology, and society is so specialized that each individual is
acquainted with only a few of the billions of other specialized invisibilities,
and because of the invisibility of who the supranational shareholders may really
be and where they are, I am confident that Reagan truly thinks that he is
operating strictly within the historic limits of a U.S.A. national government
and not as a stooge of an invisible Grunch of literally soulless supranational
giants. I don't think David Rockefeller or any of the justices of the U.S.
Supreme Court, or Volcker, head of the Federal Reserve Bank, or Margaret
Thatcher, or the heads of any of the world's governments think of their problems
in the realistic terms of their being governed entirely by the inanimate,
socially unconcerned, supranational colossi, as the possibly lethally nonhuman
growth could prove to be. However, Grunch could also prove to be an army of
benign giants, because it will depend more and more on its complex, world-around
computerization integration, and the data entered into that integrated network
will continually evidence that the present technology could make the world work
for everyone, and at a much more profitable level than realized from weapons
production. Nor do I think these present power structure spokespeople see the
supranational corporations as the unwittingly benevolent agent of evolution
about to close the historical era of separate "nation-states" and to
institute in its stead the era of omni-economically successful, omni-integrated
For the past thirty years the U.S. government's grand defense strategy has
been a puppet of the supranational corporate giants with the strings invisibly
manipulated. This policy has concentrated on accumulating greater numbers of
atomic bombs than those of the U.S.S.R., while all the while the U.S.S.R. was
(only) ostensibly endeavoring to keep pace with the U.S.A. bomb production. In
reality the U.S.S.R. was dominantly preoccupied with building an all-oceans,
primarily underwater navy from scratch and expanding numerically its
conventional-weapons army divisions.
At the time Eisenhower became president of the United States, the military
experts of both the U.S.A. and U.S.S.R. had independently concluded that a
missiledelivered atomic war would be the first war in history in which both
sides would be utterly devastated. In gunmunitioned warfare, whoever shot first
and accurately won. The other man's shot never got away. In 14,000miles-per-hour
delivery rocketry warfare, the 670,000,000miles-per-hour operating radar vision
of both sides gives each side enough advance notice after its respective enemy
has fired to let loose all of its arsenal before the enemy's missiles arrive.
For the first time in warfare history, both sides utterly lose. For those
hotheads in the capitalist world who as yet contemplate pre-emptive firing of
the U.S.A. arsenal of atomic warheads, it is importantly relevant that the
Russians have accurate, geographically triangulated positioning of their U.S.A.
targets, while the U.S.A. does not have accurate geodetic triangulation of the
location of most of the U.S.S.R. targets. (See Critical Path,
"Triangulation Mapping," pp. 184-188.)
To best understand the present (November 1981) world crisis, it is necessary
to turn history back for almost a century, back to when Edison invented the
electric lamp and the direct current generator. J. P. Morgan, Sr., the economic
power structure giant, was the first to act upon the realization that: whoever
developed, manufactured, installed, and controlled the physical-energy
generators and the metered-energy distribution and cut-off system could and
would control the national economies into which they were physically introduced.
The air we breathe was everywhere so plentiful that its availability could not
readily be monopolized. There were too many ponds, lakes, rivers, brooks, and
wells to make the metered watersupply systems a generally monopolizable
When Alexander Graham Bell invented the telephone, it had to compete with the
post-office conducted mail and required far greater numbers of employees. Morgan
saw that the copper mines and the electric equipment manufactured from copper as
well as all the power-generating companies involved the least labor
participation and the then maximally profitable business.
All of the foregoing required the availability and controllability of an
utterly unprecedented magnitude of physical apparatus and installation of
otherwise unemployed monetary wealth. The patents of Edison's inventions and an
army of astute lawyers and brokerage houses became the pivotal
legal-precedent-accepted economic properties and work force in amassing the
initial procurement capital of Morgan's power monopoly.
This initial capital-amassing was greatly augmented by selling
interest-bearing bonds to widows and trust funds in general, seemingly safely
secured by the vast lands given as a "grateful" U.S.A. people's
government as a subsidy to the pioneer railway-building and -operating
companies. The railroad company bonds were secured by the seemingly highly
valuable real estate adjacent to all the railroad, cross-country rights-of-way,
their way-station town properties, railway stations, trackage, etc. which
railroad company bonds were purchased for widows and trust funds in general by
their trustees. This capital amassing initially financed the electric power
companies. As we have noted elsewhere, these railroad bonds became worthless in
the 1929 economic crash. Nobody wished to buy the old depot buildings, etc.
When the automobiles and the auto-trucks took so much business from the
railways as to render the railroad passenger systems profitless, and
cross-country, pipeable petroleum replaced coal as a prime fuel, and giant
transoceanic tankers were developed, and the Middle East oil lands were explored
and developed, the petroleum business rose swiftly to become the maximum
economic power giant of the twentieth century, outpowering the Morgan utilities-
and banks-based system.
The number of kilowatts of electric energy being generated from each BTU
(British Thermal Unit) of fossil fuels burned or foot-pounds per second of
water-power-derived turbine-functioning has continually increased since the very
beginnings of electric-power generation and distribution. Concurrently, the
weight of the production and distribution equipment to produce that power
rapidly decreased per each kilowatt or horsepower of energy produced and
delivered. As a consequence of this neverceasing technological increase in
overall efficiency, the actual overall cosmically predicated costs of energy
generation have always and only decreased, and cost increases have been the
consequence of those in top power-positions contriving through pricing to be
able to pay ever greater dividends to shareholders and thus to increase the
stockmarket value of their own shares, thus in turn to increase their power to
control the amassed money of others as capital. Such capital power manipulation
is intoxicating and seemingly unchallengeable.
However, as with all socioeconomic-political power evolution, the politically
appointed "public service" commissions in all the states have
consistently granted even higher kilowatt-hour price rates to the privately
owned, deceptively named "public service companies" producing the
electric power. So unchallengeably powerful are the "public service"
commissions that in 1981 and 1982 they have been able to allow great utility
companies to abandon some nine hundred million dollars wasted by utility
companies as they abandon their partially finished atomicenergy plants on the
U.S. West Coast charging the loss to the consumers by increasing their
rates. This results in private enterprise making a $900 million bad gamble and
having the capability of passing on their loss to the public.
The constant fundamental operating-cost reductions, combined with constant
price increases, have produced so much money that the power-generating
businesses are amongst the wealthiest and most invisible of the politically
manipulative organizations. After World War II, the electric power industry's
three-quarters-of-a-centuryaccumulated wealth successfully combined its
political power with that of the oil giants to "take over for nothing"
the total atomic-energy program assets. This included all of the know-how and
production apparatus of the U.S. government's military atomic-energy program,
for which development the U.S. citizens had paid $150 billion.
This amassing of political power coincided with a generally dawning awareness
of U.S. youth in general and an ever-increasing percentage of the mature U.S.
electorate regarding the corruption of the political representatives of their
theretofore-trusted democratic government. This corruptibility is inherent in
the fact that the TV electronic campaign costs of U.S.A. elections now amount to
$50 million for the presidency, $10 for a senatorship, and $5 million for a
congressional seat. This corruptibility is enhanced by the U.S. Supreme Court's
hang-fire no-ruling of 1981 which will allow unlimited money to be spent in the
next election years.
The now-gone supranational corporate giants have always known that the fossil
fuels can and will become exhausted. To meet this contingency, their post-World
War II last-third-of-a-century grand strategy has been to force the U.S.
government to develop superior atomic-war capability, knowing full well that
atomic warfare will terminate human occupancy of planet Earth, which fact would
eventually force the government to abandon its war use. First and foremost,
however, the power monopoly would have to have accomplished their "public
service" atomic energy objective; first, of becoming contractors to operate
government atomic facilities; second, of siphoning off from the U.S. government
all the latter's atomic scientist personnel and all the invisible know-how to
develop world-around atomic-energy plants to feed into their wired and metered
energy-monopoly system as the petroleum source diminished and approached
depletion. In the meantime, while maintaining their power over the U.S.A and
other political systems, their grand strategy found it necessary to have the
U.S.A. and Western World population satisfied that the U.S.A. was successfully
maintaining its fighting superiority over the U.S.S.R. by producing more atomic
bombs than the Russians.
To initiate his wired and metered electric-energy-power monopoly in the
"gay nineties" 1890 which threefourths of a century later
became an overwhelming socioeconomic power, the elder J. P. Morgan used the
earlier formula of issuing bonds and preferred stocks on each of his enterprises
as soon as they were paying dividends. He was thus provided with additional free
capital to initiate other branches of the power-structure system: for example,
in copper mining (for use in the generation and conduction of electric power),
steel manufacture (for the highline masts and structural housings of the
electric equipment), etc.
He used his engineering firm of Stone-Webster to design and build his
foreign-country power systems operated by Electric Bond and Share Company
EBASCO. His priceincreasing by the power companies was automatically matched by
increase in the stock-market sale of his companies' shares. These share values
increased with his own equities' advance. Using these equities as capital, he
opened his own banks.
Because his enterprising monopolies earned good dividends, shares in his
companies became increasingly popular. His own bank and the banks he controlled
opened brokerage departments. He backed the opening of many
stock-exchange-seat-owning individuals' brokerage houses to cope with the
increasing complexity of openmarket selling and buying of his companies' shares
or bonds. By the time of the 1929 Crash, Morgan was controlling the boards of
directors of General Electric, General Motors, U.S. Steel, the big three copper
companies, the telephone and telegraph companies, all the "Edison
Electric" public utilities, etc.; and many of the U.S. banks.
At the outset, Morgan's partners gave Harvard University its law and business
schools, from whose highly educated, specialized graduates they recruited the
army of lawyers and financial experts to service their Wall Street offices. This
legal army handled the behind-the-scenes complex contractings and financial
paperwork implementing Morgan's and his associates' enterprises. There being no
laws against so doing prior to 1929, he used general bank deposits to underwrite
In the early 1920s, the Morgan-dominated banking system pushed farm machinery
sales to farmers on timepayment plans secured to the banks by first mortgages on
the farm properties as well as on the machinery. As I explained in Critical
Path, the bad hog market of 1926 hit farmers financially, causing many to
be unable to make their monthly payments on their time-purchased farm machinery.
The country banks not only replevined the machinery but foreclosed on the farms,
which were mortgaged to guarantee the time payments the country banks found
the farms unsalable, as there were no other U.S.A. individuals eager to go into
farming. ("How You Gonna Keep Em Down on the Farm After They've Seen Paree?"
World War I song.) Then the bigger city banks, which had loaned the small
banks money based on the "soundness of physical land and machine
collateral," foreclosed on the small country banks. The larger city banks
also found their foreclosure properties unsalable. No cash funds were available
to accommodate their depositors' withdrawals. "Runs" on banks
multiplied. There came a crisis moment when over five thousand banks closed in
one day. Finally the big Chicago banks closed and only the big New York banks
remained open. Then it was discovered that they, too, having loaned their
deposits for industrial ventures, now lacked cash monies with which to refund
their depositors and the New Deal and FDR declared the "Bank
Moratorium," thereby avoiding admitting the bankruptcy of the U.S. banking
system and with it the end of U.S.A. capitalism. The U.S. Congress, inquiring
exhaustively into the matter, found that those New York banks' brokerage
departments had been using deposits for underwriting venture industries. Because
this was at the heart of the failure, the Glass-Steagel Banking Act of 1933 was
enacted "permanently" it was hoped separating venture
brokerage-underwriting from the New Deal government's guaranteed bank deposits
of the people.
J. P. Morgan, Sr.'s strategy of organization of the financing and control of
U.S.A. industrial development was evolved from his close cooperation with the
Bank of England's centuries-old, behind-the-scenes laws of accepted precedent of
physical property rights and their convertibility into "paper
securities" as marketable shares in enterprise. The Bank of England and
Morgan nurtured the young Grunch of eighteenth-century giants from their youth
into lusty nineteenth-century colonial maturity. J. P. Morgan became the
official fiscal agent of the British Empire in World War I. As the "Allies'
" purchasing agent from 1914 to 1918, Morgan's amassing in the U.S.A. of
the profits of World War I shifted the world capital of the grunch of corporate
giants from Europe to America, and until the 1929 crash assured Morgan's
dominance of the socioeconomic evolutionary balance of power over human affairs
on planet Earth.
The Russian Revolution brought about the 1917 inception of the U.S.S.R. and
its organization of world communism as an evolutionary challenge to capitalism's
In Critical Path I have traced these evolutionary events to 1981. In
1981, the supranational invisible moneymaking colossus finds itself faced with
the U.S.S.R.'s 1981 superiority in number of conventionally armed divisions and
greater all-oceans naval power than that possessed by the U.S.A. and its NATO
U.S. Secretary of Defense Caspar Weinberger admitted in April 1981 the
extraordinary Soviet military buildup, which has left in its wake the U.S. loss
of strategic defense advantage which it had maintained in the fifties and
sixties. He cites Defense Department data showing the Soviets' four-to-one
advantage in tanks, their two-to-one tactical advantage in atomic-powered,
atomic-missilelaunching submarines, and a four-to-one advantage in submarines,
and in addition the sizable increase in the weight and accuracy of their nuclear
intercontinental strategic missiles. He describes their naval buildup as the
fastest in naval history. Weinberger states that, at present, the U.S.S.R.
continues to outbuild the U.S. two-to-one in surface vessels and five-to-one in
submarines, according to his latest figures. (Jane's annual
publications of international armaments have been providing these figures quite
accurately over the years with no mention of them by the
petro-atomic-power-structure-puppeted U.S. politicians and even less mentioned
by the supranational-giants-controlled U.S. press.)
To regain its military edge (detente) over the Soviet Union, if it can be
done at all, and assuming that the U.S.S.R. does nothing to offset the attempt,
will take ten years and, according to Defense Secretary Weinberger $ 1.6
trillion or approximately $1 billion a day ($365 billion a year) over the next
five years, just for starters. The supranational-money colossus needs that time
to build its CIA-organized and U.S. people's unknowingly financed fighting
power, officered by mercenaries (For example, the aborted Seychelles
"invasion" of November 27, 1981, involving mercenaries based in South
Africa.) and soldiered, sailored, and piloted by puppeted countries to attain a
superior posture over the Soviet Union or any other power including even a
possibly-to-be-catalyzed, supranational, individually thinking and acting,
spontaneously cooperating amalgam of now majorly literate, apolitical,
Since it takes millions of dollars to win U.S. elections, the vast majority
of America's crossbreeding youth and an ever-increasing number of its adults
concede politics to be so inherently corrupt as to cause increasing numbers of
qualified voters to withhold from voting, lest in doing so their action be
misconstrued as constituting their approval or acceptance of the present-day
corruptibility of politics and its consequent inability to articulate the will
In 1980, of the 227 million persons in the United States (159 million of whom
were eligible to vote), only 78 million, or only one-half, of the eligible
persons voted in the most negatively momentous presidential election in nearly a
third of a century. Of that number who voted, only 40 million voted for the
winning candidate, Ronald Reagan. The "overwhelming majority" that
President Reagan repeatedly claims legitimizes his "mandate" for
sweeping executive and legislative change consists, in fact, of only 14 percent
of the people of the United States.
Many youth and many oldsters inspired only by a concern for all Earthians and
convinced that their voting cannot stem big money's "will" did not
vote. On the other hand, the economically rich, seeking to secure their economic
advantage, for example rich widows and retired executives, leave it to their
lawyers, stockbrokers, or such organizations as the very minor minority
organization (immorally misrepresenting themselves as the "Moral
Majority") to make their voting decisions.
Regarding such doing-the-thinking-for-others organizations as the "Moral
Majority," we have Yale University President A. Bartlett Giamatti's
statement in August 1981, as quoted from a United Press International dispatch:
He said that the Moral Majority and other "conservative" groups are
"shredding the spiritual fabric of our society" and are "intent
on destroying diversity of opinion.... They threaten through political pressure
or public denunciation whoever dares to disagree with their authoritarian
positions.... They would sweep before them anyone who holds a different
opinion." Giamatti further criticized the "peddlers of coercion"
for pressing uncompromising attitudes that are "dangerous, malicious
nonsense" and as being advocates of "polyester mysticism" with a
goal to "divide in the name of patriotism.... They have licensed a new
meanness of spirit in our land, a resurgent bigotry that manifests itself in
racist and discriminatory postures."
The supranational-giant-controlled Madison Avenue advertising billions at
once replied through the editorial pages of its U.S. newspapers which undertook
to vitiate the statement of Yale University's president. It is not likely that
the third-oldest and second-richest university in America has a board of
trustees and faculty that would select as its president an irresponsible
"crackpot," which many media editorials asserted Giamatti to be.
Because many of the invisible supranational corporation's manufacturing
facilities are presently located on U.S.A. geography, and the invisible giant's
armaments objectives require ten years lead-time, the colossus has now of
necessity placed its initial armaments orders in the U.S.A.-situated factories.
Capitalism's supranational corporate colossus also finds it most convenient and
invisibly expedient to continue doing its business under the name "United
States" which is easy for it to do effectively: first quite simply by
hoisting the American flag in front of all its factories, and second by pulling
the vital strings of the finance-shackled and lobby-locked congressional puppets
to make them pass the requisite legislation. Thus, the colossus now (early 1982)
has in production the necessary first-things-first of its ultimate ten-year,
multi-trillion-dollar procurement, world-published as being "U.S.A.
national defense activity."
Throughout its first 127 pre-World War I years, the U.S. government often had
no national debt. World War I left the U.S.A. with a national indebtedness of
$33 billion. The U.S.A. banking system went truly bankrupt in 1929, but the New
Deal's 1933 Bank Moratorium postponed recognition of that fact. Since then the
moment of acknowledgment that the U.S. government itself is financially bankrupt
has been postponed first by further- and further-ahead postponements of the
payoff dates for U.S. notes and bonds and by successive votes of the U.S.
Congress to increase the national debt limit. By "money accounting"
(in contradistinction to real-wealth accounting), the U.S.A. is now
realistically bankrupt. Since Nixon became president, the U.S.A. has been unable
to pay even the interest on its national debt, let alone reduce the principal.
Before Nixon, Congress assumed tax underwriting of ever greater interest-bearing
on ever more postponed and greater national debt limits. For all the Nixon years
and all the years of his successors the president has had annually to file a
negative budget, meaning the U.S. cannot even pretend to be able to pay the
interest on its indebtedness.
The supranational-money-colossus banking experts therefore have ordered its
U.S. 1981 president and its congressional puppets to legislate stringent
budgetary measures without reducing Grunch's annual earnings, to be accomplished
by curtailing old-age medical aid and eliminating schoolchildren's lunches
eyewash measures permitting the U.S. government to "technically"
assume that by 1983 it would be balancing its budget as a first requirement of
"sound banking practice," warranting the banks loaning their funds to
accommodate the most profitable known business, that of armaments. However, by
1982 it became evident that the administration was not going to be able to do
so, even within roughly a $100billion deficiency. Balancing the budget would, in
fact, be only a "creditability" cosmetic in view of
supranationalcontrolled international banking's superabundant monetary
capability to pay for the ultimate $6-trillion CIA's (Capitalism's Invisible
Army's) rearmament goal. If the supranationals are unable to accomplish a U.S.
budget balancing, then a consortium of the supranational, only-logos-identified
entities will use its own credit card banking system and comfortably charge off
to insurance its $6-trillion armaments-acquisition program. But they don't want
to play the game in that profitless manner. They want to do it through U.S.
defense orders, which can pay handsome dividends throughout the process, making
possible not only the continuance of all the corporation executives but the
refunding of their capital expenditures.
Six trillion dollars! Let's try to sense the magnitude of that. Six trillion
happens also to be the number of dollars the U.S.A. and the U.S.S.R. have
already jointly spent on armaments since the end of World War II, when the
United Nations was established. All electromagnetic radiation travels at 186,000
miles per second that is, a little over seven times around the Earth's
equator in one second, over to the Moon and back in four seconds, or over to the
Sun in eight minutes. Six and one-half trillion is the number of miles radiation
reaches out radially in one year, traveling at 186,000 miles per second. That is
the magnitude of the number of dollars the supranational corporations are now
intent on spending, and spending exclusively on killingry, at the same time that
old people are deprived of their security and children go lunchless.
With control of the "Free World" media, the colossus hopes to
postpone world realization of the fact of U.S. bankruptcy for ten years. Those
ten years constitute the time needed to complete their program of rearmament
procurement through U.S. government machinery.
Having attained its present military superiority, the U.S.S.R. is not going
to give the supranationals those ten years to build their new offenses. The
U.S.S.R. sought its superiority in order to force disarmament, so that it could
turn its vast industrial productivity to the benefit of its own people to prove
that socialism can demonstrate a higher standard of living than can capitalism,
and knowing that capitalism is intent that the U.S.S.R. shall never have the
opportunity. Knowing that capitalism is so intent, the U.S.S.R. is probably
going to try to force a conventional warfaring showdown long before that
critical ten-years-to-regain-parity opportunity is afforded to capitalism.
Capitalism's recourse is to have its leaders move into the Rocky Mountain
atomic-bomb-proof apartments, then to "push the button which ends it all
for everyone." (If you are upset by that, don't forget that Critical Path
does offer a happy, but only by-the-skin-of-our-teeth to be attained
"out" from the dilemma.)
5. PAPER INTO GOLD ALCHEMISTS
The supranationals have now completely forsaken their leadership in the
once-upon-a-long-ago-time, prohumanity, industrial mass-production, gained
exclusively through individual inventive ingenuity, integrity, and local
community pride in producing only the best possible products, as does Japan
today. Such was the leadership of Henry Ford, Sr., who was inspired to
mass-produce nofrills, reliable motor vehicles for the lowest possible prices
primarily to help the farmer get to market. That his activity involved large
amounts of money was only incidental. It was obvious to Ford that a prudent
amount of earnings must be set aside to buy ever-improving equipment. Also, he
determined that a safety-factor surplus be set aside against poor economic days.
Ford's enterprise was never to make money." At enormous expense he bought
back all the shares in his Ford Motor Company from his original backers, whom he
found were primarily interested in making money. Henry, Sr., fought J. P. Morgan
for many years as to which it should be, "make sense or make money,"
which are mutually exclusive.
Ford's son and grandson failed to understand old Henry's inspirational
philosophy of real-wealth producing and learned to play only the game of
moneymaking with the money they inherited.
It is the strategic prerogative of the invisible corporate giant to
unilaterally and arbitrarily alter the scoring values in the economic game of
"earning a living" vs. either "winning a living" or
"tricking a living." The corporate colossus alters the scoring values
by increasing prices to ensure that the industrial game will always be won only
by the "richest." It is reminiscent of the following incident of my
Amongst the neighborhood boys of my childhood was one whose family was very
rich and had bought him a set of baseball bats, balls, gloves, mitts, and other
equipment such as catcher's masks, base cushions, pneumatic catcher's belly
protector, home plate that is, the equipment for an entire team. Finding a
suitable neighborhood field, he would attract a crowd of us. Eager to play,
resplendent in his baseball uniform, he would announce the rules of baseball as
we were to play it if we wanted to use his equipment. When, however, his side or
he himself began to lose or play poorly he would change the rules, making his
side's just-scored runs worth five of the earlier runs. If his rule-switching
became unacceptable to the rest of us, as it often did, he would pick up all the
playing gear, put it in his pony cart, and drive away.
Here is another example. In between the "halves" of an
end-of-season championship professional football game, the home team's
super-rich and powerful owners, finding their team three touchdowns behind the
visitors, convene an effective quorum of the league's team-owners present.
Using various economic wrist-twisting tactics, they persuade a
"carrying" majority of the owners to vote that henceforth until
further notice touchdowns are to be scored thirty points each, including the one
touchdown just made by the home team. As the final scoreboard reads 30-21 in
favor of the home team, it is easy to imagine not only the consternation of the
public over such unfair tactics but the public's outright rejection of such on
the spot, unilateral value-changing. This, however, is all there is to the
phenomenon known as unilateral price-advancing, Which is solely responsible for
The president of U.S. Steel Corporation says, "The price of U.S. steel
is now advanced ten dollars per ton." The president of the United States
says, "Mr. U.S. Steel, you can't do that." The president of U.S. Steel
replies, "Not only can I, but I already have and that's that, Mr.
President. Over and out!" Clonk.
Individual corporations within the economic power structure bring about
inflation through unilateral priceadvancing, about the
"reasonableness" of which unilateral score-changing the corporate
greats use their media ownership to educate the public. They claim their price
increase has been brought about by aggravating cost increases within their
particular industry as well as by foreign competition, ergo by evolutionary
events beyond the price-increasing management's control. To avoid antitrust
action, the price increases are done by the great industrial corporations
independently, one by one.
In order to understand the economic events transpiring in 1981, we must
comprehend the rudiments of the financial securities world. The
"abstract-being" corporation operating within the United States
receives legal authority from state and city governments to sell common shares
in "outright risk" ventures, to which common shareholders they promise
only proportional sharing of cash profits from their economically successful
operation. But corporations also receive legal authority to sell "preferred
stocks," to the owners of which the corporation becomes legally obliged to
pay a fixed annual rate of interest before distributing any of the profit to
those corporations' common stockholders. If, however, the corporation has no
annual profit, it has no obligation to pay interest to preferred stockholders.
"Preferred" means first to be "paid off" at a fixed annual
percentum rate out of net earnings, after which fixed percentum pay-off the
common shareholders divide as much of the earned profit as the directors of the
corporation feel can be distributed while also taking care of new-development
expenses as well as safety-factor reserve fund set-asides.
If the corporate enterprise is to be liquidated, the preferred stockholders
are to be paid off before the common stockholders. If the corporation fails, the
preferred stockholder share in whatever equity may be left, but not so the
common shareholders. If the corporation fails and no assets remain, the
preferred stockholders have no further legal recourse, i.e., claiming rights.
In addition to the common and preferred stocks, both of which are outright
risk-venture shares, corporations can raise initial, working, or expansion
capital by issuing bonds, provided the corporation owns free and clear real
wealth, that is, real estate or buildings and easily salable general machinery,
such as machine tools, lathes, drill presses, etc., with which machinists
produce special-purpose mass-production tools. The word real of
"real" wealth, of "reality" developed from the Spanish
word for "royal" or "royalty." The king or queen personally
acknowledged truth. Real is what the socioeconomic power structure decrees it
is. Real is, like the abstract legal-entity corporation, a legally accepted
fiction real estate equals royal estate.
Bonds are called securities, and their value is predicated upon the degree of
probability that upon public liquidation of a company, the real estate,
buildings, and machinery can be sold at the bonds' face value or more. While
corporate bonds have priority over preferred and common stocks when corporations
are liquidated, fail, or are sold, the bonds do not have priority of claim over
those to whom the corporation is already indebted for goods, services, etc., nor
do the bonds have priority over federal, state, or municipal taxes. Bond-owners
have no share in the earnings of a corporation but do have fixed-interest
priority over preferred stocks.
It is relevant to our understanding of securities to note that bonds other
than those of tax-guaranteed federal, state, county, and municipal bonds have
often proven to be less than secure. For instance, approximately all the
railroad-company bonds of the U.S.A. were defaulted, i.e., became 100-percent
unredeemable, in the economic depression of 1929 to 1933 and thenceforth.
Within the United States of North America, the right to incorporate is
legally obtainable only from state governments and not from federal nor city,
town, or county governments. If, however, corporation promoters wish to sell
shares worth more than $300,000 for capital expenditures before earnings, then
the federal government's Securities and Exchange Commission must also give its
Some states in the United States grant incorporation rights that are more
workingly satisfactory to a given type of enterprise than the privileges granted
to the incorporators by other states. Some state's incorporation privileges are
extended to cover the corporation's operations in other states. Many states
grant incorporation privileges only within their own borders.
In addition to the securities issued by corporations or by nonincorporated
companies or partnerships, bonds are issued by towns, counties, cities, states,
the federal government, and multi-state "authorities." Federal, state,
county, and city (municipal) bonds have face declared maturity dates and clearly
scheduled tax-collection commitments to cover both the yearly interest rates and
the maturity repayments to the bond-holder. All such government bonds have prior
right to funds produced by taxes.
In the world of securities properties represented by written
documents that are legally recognized forms of negotiable monetary investments,
there are also insurance policies, and in particular life-insurance policies.
Known in world history's earliest records as "bottomry," what we
now speak of as insurance dates back to its practice in 4000 B.C. Babylon as the
underwriting of merchant-ship voyages. This practice made it possible for
wealthy individuals who were not shareholders in the original shipbuilding
enterprise to participate at their own risk in the merchant-ship venturing,
which when successful was fabulously so.
Historically, life insurance is a very recent form of the already wealthy
humans' and their corporations' capital gambling, and does not begin until the
industrial era of the late nineteenth and early twentieth century, when
technology began to render humans' immediate physical environment more
propitious for the protecting, support, and omni-accommodation of increasing
numbers of human individuals, despite remote devastations occurring in the
world's wilderness areas.
The technology of industrialization was first taken advantage of by the
military specifically intent on how to more accurately kill more and more people
at ever great distances in ever shorter periods of time. As a consequence, the
technologically advanced nineteenth-century weaponry witnessed greatly increased
war-wrought devastation, leaving more and more wounded to die on the
battlefields. The medical world being as yet inexperienced and ignorant, the
U.S.A. Civil War saw the highest ratio of deaths per battlefield-committed
soldiers in all history. Due to medical ignorance, the U.S. Civil War also saw
more wounded left unattended to die on the battlefield than in all other wars of
When the U.S.A. entered World War I in 1917, it was asked by the British to
replace all the line-of-supply ships the British had lost to German submarines
and simultaneously to bring the U.S. Navy to parity with that of the British
while also training, arming, transporting, and Navy-escorting one million
soldiers across the Germansubmarine-infested Atlantic to the battlefields of
France. When the numbers of U.S.A. troops killed and wounded in World War I
battling reached unprecedented numbers, the U.S. Congress was confronted with
the enormous cost of training, arming, and transatlantic-replacing of their
killed and wounded troops in France. The U.S. Congress was then informed of an
alternative solution to the replacement problem.
The U.S. medical scientists informed the U.S. Congress of the potential
ability to save and repair the wounded U.S. soldiers in France, provided enough
money was appropriated for a known-to-be-possible vast advancement in medical
science: drugs, equipment, and practice. The cost of this capital investment in
medical science, though historically unprecedented, was far less than the cost
of entirely new troop replacements from the U.S. Convinced of these facts, the
U.S. Congress appropriated the funds for the medical-science solution of its
It worked. When the war was over and the saving and rehabilitation of vast
numbers of veterans was realized, the new-era medical establishment was not
disbanded. Enthusiastically supported by citizens in general, scientific
medicine refocused its attention on the U.S.A. home front. One after another,
the immediately fatal and "incurable" diseases, lethal conditions of
yesterday, came swiftly under complete control. Medical information regarding
further curing and effective anticipatory avoidances was enormously expanded in
the late 1920s. It was discovered in the late 1920s that the area of highest
mortality was the period of childbirth and its first ensuing four years. This
brought successful coping with these initial years' fatalities into general
effectiveness in the 1930s. The seeming population explosion after World War II
was due in fact not to a postwar increase in the birthrate, whose small rise in
the U.S.A. lasted for only two years, but to the coming of visible age of those
who used to die but did not now or hereafter die in the womb or at birth or
within their first four years in the 1930s, as had those conceived or born
before the 1930s, together with the subsequent escapees of the pre-1930s
There is no scientifically accredited manifest of an alteration in the
extreme-limit magnitude of human life-span throughout all recorded history.
There are many claims and assertions of great longevity, but 113 years is the
greatest span positively known to exist. One hundred and thirteen years is the
terminal norm of human life. How many attain their potential longevity is
another matter. Few do. However, the number of those who do is now increasing.
Quite clearly, the ability to substitute plastic bones and mechanical hearts,
etc., suggests that we may have entirely inanimate physical human mechanisms,
proving what we have contended from the beginning to be true, i.e., that
whatever it may be, life is not the physical equipment that it employs any more
than is the telephone or any other of the integral or detached tools that life
Despite many dramatically negative side-effects and feedbacks,
twentieth-century technology has rendered the everyday physical environments in
the U.S.A. and elsewhere ever more favorable to human life. This has greatly
increased the realized life-span as well as the physique of Americans and others
living under the same technological improvements of the environment in the
years between World War I and World War II, the average height of American males
increased four inches.
A popular 1900 song said, "A dollar a day is very good pay when you work
on the boulevard." Two and a half dollars per fourteen-hour day was the pay
for my own first pre-World War I job in New York City with one of the great
meat-packing companies, $15 a week ($880 a year), and I was able to live happily
but frugally on it. I was married in 1917, and as an ensign U.S.N. in the U.S.
Navy's European war zone duty I was receiving $1,800 a year.
The younger you are, the more attractively low are the annual rates of
payment for maintaining each thousand dollars worth of a life-insurance policy.
In 1917 I figured that if, when I died, my life insurance policy would give my
wife a capital sum of $50,000, she could deposit that sum in a savings bank. She
would then receive a 4 percent annual interest payment of $2,000 which would be
$200 more per year than had been our U.S. Navy ensign's pay. She would have only
one of us two to look out for, so that she should be able to save and add to the
principal deposited in the savings bank. According to their advertising, the
savings bank would continually "compound" the interest on the
deposited amount. That was the economic picture presented to me in 1917 by the
so-called honest businesses and the deeply respected banking world. Prudential
Life Insurance Company depicted itself as "Secure as the Rock of
Gibraltar." So I bought $50,000 worth of life policies. For my World War I
zone activity of eighteen months duration I was given a bonus of a fully paid
$5,000 of life insurance payable to my heirs at my death. The life-insurance
company's sales talk failed to anticipate the great deflation of the
individuals' dollars, brought about by moneymaking business' greed increasing
the prices of products and services whose physical costs were technologically
A third of a century later, my annual cost of living at a level which
permitted me to travel to give lectures and to design and physically produce
improved mass-production prototypes of livingry artifacts reached my 1917
assumed total "live-on-its-interest" capital equity of $50,000 being
completely spent each year. I sold my life-insurance policies to the
life-insurance companies for their then accrued cash value of $22,000. (This
bought me the time to develop the geodesic domes.)
Today, as yet living in the same manner while doing the work essential to
following through on my life commitment to solve socioeconomic problems
exclusively by invention and development of artifacts instead of by politics, my
annual cost of operation has reached $300,000 for servicing my commitment to
problem-solving only by artifacts with no savings accruing whatsoever. Because I
am not a "business" or a corporation my gross intake is rated as
personal income and I am therefore in the 50-percent tax bracket, which
precludes my saving any of that income, should I wish to, which I fortunately do
not; though I am convinced that I am getting more for humanity with the dollars
I spend than is any form of tax-supported government expenditure.
Each of the three Dymaxion three-wheel, front-drive, rear-steered cars, built
by me in the depths of the 1930s depression, cost $28,000, i.e., $84,000 in all.
Today they would cost twenty times as much for the same vehicles, built of the
Boastfully "ethical" big business and banking have reduced my
"necessitous and desirable" acquiring capability by 95 percent. That
is, they have priced and otherwise manipulated the money game in such a way that
$95 out of every $100 I have earned has been taken away.
Life-insurance companies bet that humanity is going to live longer than it
expects. Those who buy life insurance are betting that they are going to live
shorter than the insurance company thinks they are going to live.
The life-insurance companies invented the term "expectancy" of
probably-to-be-realized longevity of specific classes of humans existing under
various environmental conditions in contradistinction to the (now workingly
assumed) unvarying maximum limit of 113 years for all people.
The overall history of humanity's attained longevity is one in respect to
which the average individual's attained life-span has progressively increased
from a "probable average expectancy" of nineteen years of age for the
people of 5000-B.C. Egypt (at sixteen years, Alexander the Great was the world's
leading general) to seventy years in A.D. 1980 U.S.A. Though manifesting many
setbacks, the overall evolutionarily inexorable increase in longevity of those
living within the technologically advancing environment is a product of humanity
always gaining more experience and learning ever more from its errors of
conceptioning, and acting on how to cope more effectively and intelligently with
the progression of natural exigencies. Humans gain despite enormous setbacks by
The insurance companies collect all possible vital statistics governing the
probabilities of individual human survival under all the known controlling
conditions. The insurance companies have large staffs of statisticians known as
actuaries, who, aided today by computers, are able ever more effectively to
render the insurance corporations' stockholders bets to be approximately
"sure things." In investing the insureds' premiums today, they find
IBM, DuPont, and other such stocks to be "sure things," and
tax-secured U.S. government, state, county, and municipal bonds the most risky
of investments, for reasons we will later examine.
During the first three-quarters of the twentieth century, average
life-expectancy in the most favorable environment countries has almost doubled.
When I was born in 1895, life expectancy for a male born in New England was
fortytwo years of age. On July 12, 1933, I passed my "expectancy day."
On July 12, 1979, I completed my "second lifetime" or double
expectancy. I am now in the third year of my "third-expectancy
lifetime" and am very healthy, with a new stainless-steel hip I have just
My two completed lifetimes and my third of a third lifetime have found the
great majority of "savvy," well-todo individuals I have met convinced
that there exists an inherent inadequacy of life-support on planet Earth, and
therefore that their own successful survival as well as that of those whom they
cherish depends upon their cleverly learning more and more about how to be
legally selfish and thereby to accomplish personal economic advantage by
anticipatorily depriving others in directly undetectable ways. These ways are
legally and socially accepted practices of deceiving and cheating the public
e.g., by altering the scoring system and the official "game rules" of
the accrued monetary equities of other humans through zoning laws,
"etc." x 1010 ways.
Price manipulation is most often defended as being governed by
supply-and-demand variables, i.e., by what the traffic will bear" and not
by time-energy costing, which science finds to be exclusively operative
throughout all the constant energy-transformings and interchangings of Universe.
This legal deprivation of other humans to one's own personal advantage is most
simply accomplished through increasing rents or prices of a cup of coffee or a
secondrate cigar (both of which have escalated during my lifetime from five
cents to fifty cents). The powerful social precedent for price-advancing has
been initiated by nonperishable mine and oil-well owners and those other prime
industrial producers, the physical cost of whose products, measured in ergs of
energy per hour and pounds of coal or petroleum per pound of manufactured goods,
has steadily decreased.
The acceleration in technological enhancement of the living environment
apparently accounts for marked lifeexpectancy increases in post-World War I
Canada, U.S.A., Sweden, Australia, United Kingdom, New Zealand, Netherlands,
Japan. In these countries in 1968 the value of life-insurance policies in force
exceeded their respective gross national incomes. In the U.S.A. in 1970 there
were 355 million life-insurance policyholders. This being more policies than
citizens meant that many citizens hold several policies. In 1970, the assets of
1790 U.S. Iife-insurance companies totaled 208 billion dollars.
Throughout the history of the United States of North America, until 1952, the
federal, state, and municipal bonds guaranteed by the tax-collecting
capabilities of those authorities, fortified by their ability to seize the
property of tax evaders, were generally rated the most secure of
"securities" to protect the U.S.A. population.
Until 1952 the states and federal government required that all life-insurance
companies, all savings banks, and all trust funds invest only in notes and bonds
of the ever-suitably-increasable, tax-supported federal, state, municipal, and
multi-state authorities, whose bonds were officially qualified by federally
supervised authorities as being "legal for trust funds." Included in
the trust-funds category were all the bank- or lawyer-administered wills and
trust funds of all kinds, all employment or executive retirement funds of
corporations, labor unions, or cooperatives, all savings banks and life
In the post-1933 pullout from the "absolute economic crash" years
of 1929 to 1933, the U.S. Congress approximately unanimously enacted a number of
measures essential for coping with the economic errors clearly manifest in the
post-mortem studies of the Great Crash. Essential to the correction of those
errors was the establishment of absolutely interconstant price, wage, rent, and
interestrate controls. Profits were not only permitted but welcomed. They had,
however, to be inventively attained by producing more, better goods, more
satisfactory services, etc., for the same or lesser amounts of energy, time, and
Thorough review of those 1930-42 economic climb-out years' events and their
utter undoing in 1952 is clearly related in the chapter "Legally Piggily,"
in my book Critical Path.
In 1952, the twenty-year moribund G.O.P. regained control of the political
initiative and immediately eliminated all price, rent, interest, and wage
controls. It also passed laws allowing insurance companies, savings banks,
retirement funds, and all trust funds in general to invest in common stocks,
preferred stocks, and corporate bonds. This also brought about the formation of
a myriad of investment-trust funds. It did not, however, allow the U.S.
government or any of the states, counties, or municipalities to invest the
enormous Social Security automaticallytax-collected individual worker's funds or
any other of its future-committed economic-responsibility funds to be invested
in any other than its own U.S.A. government, state, county, or municipality
dollar-savings-accounts, whose purchasing equity was being ever depreciated by
With wholesale industrial prices freed to escalate (though protested against
by the U.S. Eisenhowerthrough-Carter presidents), retail prices, wages, and
corporate share prices as traded on the stock markets swiftly escalated in
response. So-called inflation was inevitable. What the colossus' media call
"inflation" is of course deflation of humanity's buying power.
Inflation does not increase the true values nor produce more or better goods.
All talk of Federal Reserve rediscount-rate-increases acting as an inflation
retardant is in fact only "rationalization" camouflage for escalating
bank usury rates. Though a Federal Reserve interest-rate increase may produce a
momentary deflection in the "rate of inflation curve," it never does
any more than that. There is no evidence whatsoever that Federal Reserve
rediscount-rate-increases successfully arrest inflation. This being so, the
continuance of such interest-rate increases ostensibly to combat inflation as
actuated by the private-enterprise-controlled and deceivingly misnamed
"Federal" Reserve Bank system must in historical retrospect be
identified as a fraudulent means for increasing the profits of the banking
When Nixon cut loose the U.S. dollar from its U.S. government 1933-fixed
($32-an-ounce) relationship to gold, the U.S. citizen's dollar equity declined
The last third of a century of overall stock-market priceadvances, in direct
correspondence to the role of inflation in business pricings in general, has
produced ever widening but false gaps between people's government fund equity
values and the portfolio of world-around stockmarket values of the securities of
the private-enterprise system.
Had the U.S. government in 1952 been allowed by the U.S. government
itself, which did the granting to invest their Social Security and other
appropriated funds in Fortune's leading one hundred corporations'
common shares, as were all the fund managers of all the within-the-U.S.A. trust
funds, life-insurance companies, and investment trusts with their funds, the
1982 value of the U.S. government-tax-collected Social Security and other funds
would permit the U.S.A. to extend all manner of social benefits to all its
Hopefully, to prevent unilateral price manipulation the original value of the
U.S. government tax-collected Social Security funds was price-locked into gold
at $32 an ounce. This was done when approximately all the world's monetary gold
bullion was stored in the U.S. Treasury's Fort Knox, Kentucky Hills vaults. It
was then that the U.S. government contracted with its working citizens to
provide each with post-retirement Social Security, to be purchased by them
as with all life insurance by payments deducted from their wages and
salaries and originally matched by equal sums paid for by the employers, all
paid to the government in the form of taxes. The first Republican presidency
after the New Deal allowed the employers to write off their share of this by
allowing them to deduct it as operating expense before calculating annual taxes.
The January 1982 value of the U.S. government's up-tothe-minute paid-in
Social Security and other tax-collected, government-committed funds are now
stashed away only in ink figures in the U.S. Treasury Department books,
completely bereft of that fund's $32-per-ounce linkage with gold, as arbitrarily
severed by the Republican president of the United States without authority from
the U.S. Congress and only on the advice of media-unidentified non-government
"others" with whom he met in a secret two-day conference on Minot
Island in Gilkey's Harbor, Islesboro (a Penobscot Bay, Maine, island), after
most of the gold had been withdrawn from the Kentucky Hills vaults to meet
negative international balances of trade brought about by oil imports.
If, since their inception a half-century ago, the tax deductions for Social
Security had been invested in leading common stocks by a consortium of Merrill
Lynch-grade investment houses, the majority of U.S. senior citizens would now be
The advertising industry, the brokers, the banks, the conglomerates, the
shipping business, and labor unions have all insinuated their money-making or
wage-equity equalization into the complex price-increasing. All the while, the
actual basic costs of nature's cattle's calves' hide-making from the
photosynthetically Sun-impounded hydrocarbon-rich vegetation energy has not
increased one iota. Inventors have greatly reduced the manufacturing costs
accomplished only by machinery whose installation costs require large capital
What we have experienced are ever larger sums of other's money being
commanded by the money-makers all at the expense of the individual human
beings who do not command such sizable funds, discouraging their enterprise and
When in 1920 I bought my $50,000 life-insurance policies, the best U.S. Navy
officers' shoes cost $4 a pair. Civilians had to pay $5 for first-class leather
shoes. Fancy, made-to-order Cordovans cost $7 a pair. In the sixty-year interim,
the cows have not improved the quality of their hides; automated
shoe-manufacturing processes have not improved the shoes. In fact, the BTU's
(British Thermal Units) per each kilowatt of the electricity required to operate
the shoe-production machinery has continually decreased; but money-making
business has gotten the price increased to $50 a pair. To do so, after each of
their arbitrary price-increasings solely for greater profit they have had to
share a minimum of their profit with the labor unions else the workers could not
buy the shoes. If you are not a labor-union-backed wage-earner you simply pay
more and more for the same shoes, which again means that those manipulating
large amounts of money are robbing you.
The stock markets reflect these price increases. Since the shoes are no
better and often worse, the net of it all is that the same shoes require ten
times more of the individual's paycheck dollars, so I am being robbed by the
system and my government is unable to protect me; in fact, the present
administration of my would-be people's government is being conducted by those
who have been robbing me. They have become utterly callous in their viewpoint of
rationalized selfishness based on the economic assumption of "not enough
for both you and me" wherefore they look out only for themselves. These are
the people who are even now maneuvering toward an atomicwar exchange in which
all the unemployed and poor in general are the only ones sure to be eliminated.
The Reagan government's reduction of taxes for the rich money-makers which
might otherwise have been applied to saving the nation's human security system,
while concurrently also trying to increase the annual amount of armaments
appropriations to a $150 billion level, shows how absolutely ruthlessly the
directors of the supranational colossus are determined to acquire their own
superarms protection against communism while realistically making hundreds of
billions of dollars a year manufacturing their armaments while also ruining the
lives (slow murdering) of many millions of U.S. citizen workers to whom the U.S.
government has sold the insurance of oldage and health-security benefits.
Nixon's cutting loose of the price anchorage betrayed all non-wealthy U.S.
The Reagan government has reinstated the military draft to raise troops to
protect capitalism against communism, while refusing funds to bury the bodies of
its appropriations-abandoned deceased veterans, which again makes it clear that
what was once the Republican Party of Lincoln is now the party of unmitigated
selfishness of big money.
We have arrived at an overall economic condition where the seemingly
inalienable rights of U.S. citizenship can be enjoyed only if one is the owner
of an amount of stocks whose dividends exceed $50,000 annually per individual at
the present level of dollar depreciation. The very word "inflation" is
a deliberately deceptive term adopted to exploit the easily misguided human
reflex conditioning. It was spontaneously chosen to obscure the fact that all
nonholders of corporate shares are being legally robbed.
The U.S. government Treasury, in its almost daily task of arranging for loans
from syndicates of banks and brokerage houses for funding and refunding its
ever-morefrequently-coming-due-for-payment short- and long-term government
obligations, finds it ever more expensive to market even its short-term
promissory notes and longerperiod bonds. Its long-term bonds sell at prices
which, with interimly accruing interest, have ultimate monetary yields
between the price at which they were purchased in the financial market and their
face-value maturity payoff in the neighborhood of 18 percent, showing
clearly that the financial-market world is now assuming that the U.S. government
will soon reach a crisis point beyond which it will no longer be able to pay off
either its short- or long-term obligations. All the big brokerage houses and
banks that join in syndication to handle the sale of the
government-refunding-note sales make so much profit in doing so that they will
keep on risking their joint underwriting until they see the moment of formally
acknowledged bankruptcy of the nation to be less than a year away. When the
score reads one trillion and a half, with a debt increasing regularly at over
100 billion a year, somebody is going to see that the emperor has no clothes and
when they shout out to that effect, there will be a swift world acknowledgment
of the fact. Then they will try "Title 13," which allows the bankrupt
organization to keep on operating and thus terminate any and all risks of
private enterprise for which risking on behalf of human gains it has been
given the many considerations such as corporate privileges.
In the September 1, 1981, sales of U.S. Treasury ninetyday notes, which were
almost certainly redeemable before any U.S. government bankruptcy
payment-defaults, produced yields that were momentarily higher than the earnings
on many high-grade corporate shares. Until the summer of 1981 these short-term,
high-yield government notes had been sold only in minimum lots, the prices of
which have been beyond the everyday buying scope of individual citizens but at
negligible prices to the supranationals or any of their world banks. It is now
far more risky to buy U.S. government securities than it is to buy shares in
what once was risk capital's economic venture corporation shares. There is
nothing in the words or spirit of the U.S. Declaration of Independence or U.S.
Constitution which states or suggests the U.S.A. is committed exclusively to the
success of the rich. The U.S.A. we have known is now bankrupt and extinct.
The swift coming-apart of our national economic system to make way for
evolution's inexorably developing integration of a world socioeconomic system is
manifest in the full-page advertisement in the Sunday New York Times (August 9,
1981) by one of the most conservative of the New York savings banks: "18%
Interest Starting Now. Up to $2,000 Tax-Free Interest Starting Oct. 1." For
this same interest rate, Dime Savings Bank required an investment of $5,000.
Twenty similarly unprecedented savings-bank ads appeared in the same financial
section. Before 1980, U.S. savings banks had paid in the range of 4-percent
interest. The following week, that of August 16, the same plethora of bank
advertisements appeared, with the percentage increased to 25 percent. By the
week of August 23, the advertisements had advanced their offer to 40 percent
interest. This was, of course, the correctly calculated percentage of gain, but
misleadingly employed. The percentage represented "yield to maturity"
in respect to the low August purchasing price of U.S. Treasury notes maturing on
October 1, 1981, whose depressed market value indicated not only the imminence
of U.S.A. bankruptcy, but the expectation that this particular set of U.S.A.
"refunding notes" at ever higher interest rates and on ever shorter
maturity terms would in all probability be redeemed before common recognition of
the outright bankruptcy. The advertising was deliberate and mischievously
misleading in that it implied a continuing 40-percent interest rate if you
deposited several thousand dollars whereas the interest advertised was to
accrue only until October 1, 1981. The advertisements failed to clearly
communicate that the interest rate after October 1 would be a customary
savings-account rate. The advertisements were hoaxes to acquire savings
deposits, which the bank could loan out at much higher rates of interest.
At this point in our review of how economic and other social conditions have
evolved to such a threateningly devastating future outlook for many if not all
humans, we wish to recall that inexorable cosmic evolution is intent on
integrating all humanity in one global government and, therefore, on eliminating
all of planet Earth's nations and on doing so in a hurry. The most difficult of
all the world's sovereignties to eliminate is clearly that of the U.S.A. We
recall having forecast this termination of the U.S.A. at least fifteen years
ago. The 150 nations are 150 clots in the economic bloodstream of our planet.
The headlong rush into the atomic holocaust is in fact a far more threatening
development than the natural economic demise of the U.S.A., which in fact may be
viewed as simply a selfremoving-planetary-economics-blood-clot event.
6. CAN'T FOOL COSMIC COMPUTER
It must be remembered that, as clearly elucidated in Critical Path
and Operating Manual for Spaceship Earth (The July 31, 1981, issue of Publisher's
Weekly reported on the first U.S. publishers' trade fair in the People's
Republic of China. Over six hundred publishers and eight thousand titles were
represented, with several million English-reading Chinese attending the exhibit
in six cities. Elaine Frumer, a member of the U.S. delegation reporting in an
accompanying article entitled "What the Chinese Looked At," listed
Operating Manual for Spaceship Earth first on the list she compiled of the ten
books the Chinese showed the most interest in.), money is not wealth and that
wealth is the organized technological capability to protect, nurture, educate,
and accommodate the forward days of humans, whereas money is only a medium of
exchange and a cash accounting system. Money has become completely monopolized
by the supranational-corporation colossi, which inherently as legal abstractions
ignore the problem of how to protect and nurture human lives.
In the very largest way of looking at planet Earth's socioeconomic-evolution
events, we must observe that humans are designed with legs and not roots.
Yesterday, humanity developed temporary roots as it cultivated its life-support
food root-grown on the land. The metals made possible metal canning of food and
mobilization of machinery. Today, all of human existence depends on the swift,
world-around intercommunication system operating at 186,000 miles per second. We
have transformed reality from Newton's "at rest" norm to an Einstein's
186,000-miles-per-second norm. Socioeconomically we have synchronized with the
omni-intertransformative kinetics of the entire Universe.
Planetary economics has now shifted from a physicalland-and-metals capitalism
to a strictly metaphysical, omniplanetary, omnicosmic-wealth know-how
capitalism. The once noble and essential but now obsolete nations belonged to
the rooted socioeconomic land-capitalism era of humanity. In reality, humanity
is now uprooted kinetically and occupying the whole planet. Capitalism is
dumping its immobile real estate and depending on science to synchronize its
affairs with the invisible realities, misassuming, however, that science knows
what it is all about. To successfully dump all its real estate, capitalism has
all but ceased "renting" and through enforced selling of
"cooperatives" and "nothing else but condominiums" is
forcing the citizenry into anchored exploitability, while it is always
increasing the corporate deployability and mobile shift-about-ability around the
Since science and human inventiveness are continually learning how to produce
ever more, and ever better performance, for each ounce of material, erg of
energy, and second of labor and overhead time invested in any and all of
industry's production functions, the real cosmic costs are always and only
decreasing, and all price-increasing, as already noted, is corporate selfishness
"gotten away with by political-campaign obligations and by excruciatingly
painful, behind-the-scenes corporate lobbyists' congressional bullying.
In 1940, two years before the U.S.A. entered World War II, the president of
the Aluminum Company of America became interested in my use of corrugated
aluminum in the Dymaxion Deployment Unit, which was the little, mass-producible,
autonomous, one-room dwelling machine that I had developed for a group of
Scottish leaders, intent on anticipating the wholesale bombing of England's
industrial cities, who had proposed accommodation of the surely-to-be-displaced
population in thousands of my Dymaxion Deployment Units to be installed on the
Scottish moorlands. I was developing these deployment units at Butler
Manufacturing Company in Kansas City. I was doing this by converting Butler's
mass-production, twenty-foot-diameter, galvanized-steel grain bins into an
autonomous, fifteen-hundred-dollar, wellinsulated, fireproof, earthquake-proof,
kerosene-ice-boxand-stove, Sears Roebuck-furnished, ready-to-move-into unit.
The Butler grain bins had been developed for the U.S. government
"ever-normal-granary" program. The Alcoa president hoped that I would
switch from corrugated, galvanized iron grain bins to corrugated aluminum bins.
He told me that the cost of aluminum would always decrease. He said that the
main cost was that of the electrolytic refining of bauxite ore into aluminum. He
said the cost of electricity for the process was always decreasing as we learned
to produce ever more kilowatt hours per each BTU of fossil fuel expended.
Aluminum, he said, is one of nature's most abundant elements. The wholesale
price of aluminum in 1940, when Alcoa's president made that statement to me, was
twelve cents per pound. Today it is selling for over a dollar a pound, not
because the Alcoa president was wrong in what he said but because massively
organized selfishness has dishonestly changed the scoring system.
It is evident that the degree of technical "advantage" now attained
by world-around industrial production capability, if realistically appraised and
articulated, now shows that all humanity has just reached a state of
comprehensive technical advantage adequate to provide a billionaire's level of
living on an indefinitely sustainable base for all of the over four billion
human passengers now aboard Spaceship Earth (see Critical Path). The
world's economic accounting system, if properly entered into the world's
computers, will quickly indicate that comprehensive economic success for all
humanity is now realizable within a Design Science Decade. All it takes is
shifting from weaponry to livingry production.
History's unprecedentedly large and invisible supranational Grunch of Giants
being too supra- and infra-visibly large to be sensitively comprehended, it is
difficult to surmise and accredit that the almost omni-computerized giant may be
evolution's agent of most effective establishment of a world-embracing
socioeconomic system most logically suited for the mass-production and
distribution of its products and services to economically successful humanity.
It could well be that the total-world-involved, supranational giant
corporations' computer operations might, to their corporate directors'
astonishment and to popular surprise, lead the Grunch into profitable discard of
all that is not true, as for instance that anybody owns anything. Commonly
acknowledged operational custodianship and popular reaccreditation of the
integrated world-around technology management may supplant "ownership"
with Hertz and telephone-renting.
The way that the giant can be successfully led into doing so is for a
substantial majority of humanity, and eventually all humanity, realistically to
comprehend the falsity of the greater part of the inventory of academic premises
and axioms upon which the thus misconditioned reflexing of educated"
society is based. For instance, there is no God-validated deed to property of
any kind whatsoever. There are no solids. There are no things only systemic
complexes of events interacting in pure principle. There is no up or down in
Universe. There is no cubic structure. There are no straight lines. There is no
one-, two-, or three-dimensionality. There is only four- or six-dimensionality,
etc. As we eliminate that which isn't true, we inadvertently admit into reality
that which is true. As world society divests itself of that which experimental
evidence demonstrates to be untrue and embracingly enters into its computer the
mathematical formulae of all that can be experimentally proven to be true, all
the socially, selfishly malignant characteristics of the giant may vanish and
the omni-pro-social-advantage-producing capabilities may prevail and flourish.
I smell the blood of a Britishman
Be he alive or be he dead
I'll grind his bones
To make my bread.
Steal kudos and credit American
Be it live checking
Or savings "dead"
We knead their dough
For dividend bread.
Each of the giants of today's great Grunch is a quadrillionfold more
formidable than was Goliath. Each is entirely invisible, abstract, and
completely ruthless not because those who run the show are malevolent but
because the giant is a non-human corporation, a many-centuriesold,
royal-legal-advisor-invented institution. The giant is a so one-sidedly biased
abstract legal invention that its exploitation by the power structures of thirty
generations have made the XYZ corporations and companies seemingly as much a
part of nature as the phases of the Moon and clouds of the sky. Corporations
operate on an unnatural economic basis that makes a successful Las Vegas
roulette bet a trifling success. If you bet your money on the fortunate
corporation, your bet is paid and repaid to you quarterly, continually, ad
infinitum, often more copiously each year. Assuming an investment of 100 shares
at a cost of $2,750 in I.B.M. in 1914 when the company was first formed, it
would have grown by June 1959 to 59,320 shares values at $19,308,900, plus
$1,089,000 in cash and stock dividends and an additional $101,906 from rights
As I have frequently recalled, the grossly mis- or underinformed,
95-percent-illiterate world society of 1900 misassumed the existence of a
fundamental and dire inadequacy of life-support to be operative on our planet,
wherefore it concluded, and the political-economic system as yet maintains, that
it has to be only one or the other of the planet Earth's two great political
ideologies which can survive, and that all the people governed by the loser must
perish "there is not enough for both."
The now-predominantly-literate world population of 1981 has developed an
intuitive awareness of the illogicality and even madness of all political
All the foregoing inadequate life-support misassuming by both political
parties and all the major religious organizations, as earlier noted, has
resulted in both sides having jointly spent six and a half trillion dollars in
developing the present capability to destroy all humanity within one hour.
Humanity at large is logically intuiting that the same sum spent in the
direction of improving the lives of the presently deprived many might readily
have brought about better results than race suicide.
The awareness of the emergence of a new world society has been only
intuitive, because it is actualized only by a superficial knowledge of the
overall integrated effects of an almost entirely nonsensorially contacted
invisible reality of electronics, chemistry, metallurgy, atomics, and
astrophysics. The epochal events of humans landing on the Moon,
satellite-relayed "instant" around-the-world information, and an
exclusively direct Sun-powered, Paris-toLondon flight are altogether reorienting
world-around humanity's intuitive thinking into the realization that we can now
do so much with so little that we can indeed take care of everybody.
There is a deep urge on the part of vast numbers of world "youth"
irrespective of their years to do something right now about their
intuition, which develops an impatience and ever more volatile group psychology.
There is therefore an urge toward open physical revolt even amongst some of
those who do know there is a bloodless, design-science, revolutionary option to
attain socioeconomic success for all. The hotheads want to yield to their
impatience. To those who urge us to join forces in bloody revolution, I reply as
Before humans could be designed to occupy it, planet Earth had to be
designed. Before planet Earth could be designed, the solar system had to be
designed. Before the solar system could be designed, galaxies had to be
designed. Before special-case galaxies could be designed, special-case
macro-micro Universe, all its atoms and molecules, gravity, and radiation had to
be designed. Before any realizable designing was possible, it was cosmically
necessary to discover and employ the full family of eternally coexistent and
synergetically inter-augmentative, only-by-mathematical-equations expressible,
intercovarying, generalized principles governing the generalized design of
eternally regenerative scenario Universe. And before all recognition of the
eternal generalized principles and their inherent design-science functions, it
was further necessary to have:
- The design of an eternally regenerative, radiationally expansive and
gravitationally contractive, everywhere and everywhen complexedly
intertransforming, nonsimultaneously episoded, scenario Universe.
- The generalized design of galaxies of entropic matterinto-energy as
radiation-exporting stars and generalized star systems of planets serving
syntropically, as radiation-into-matter importing planets.
- The design of planet Earth as the Sun-orbiting, biosphere-protected, and
oxygen-atmosphere-equipped incubator of DNA-RNA design-controlled biological
life and of that life's photosynthetic conversion of entropic radiation into
syntropic, orderly hydrocarbon molecules and a vast variety of hydraulically
compressioned, crystallinely tensioned, exquisitely structured biological
species omni-inter-regenerating as an ecological omni-life and
- The eternal mathematics numbering and structuring. The eternally
extensive mathematical spectrums of frequencies, wave lengths, and harmonic
Only thereafter could those human beings progressively re-evolutionize
exclusively by trial-and-error enlightenment, from their born-naked state of
absolute ignorance, to discover their scientific-principle-apprehending minds
and thereby (now for the first possible moment in history) to glimpse humanity's
semi-divine functioning-potential as local-Universe
critical-information-gatherers and localUniverse problem-solvers in support of
the integrity of eternally regenerative Universe.
Only now for the first time can we human beings effectively revolutionize
society in an adequate degree to fulfill what I have identified in Critical
Path as being the number one objective of humanity's inclusion in
The generalized principles have always eternally existed and have always
been available for each special-case, revolutionary design-realization. The
special-case design revolution has always had to precede the extra-specialcase
local social revolution, whether it be by inventing guns which overwhelm archery
or inventing the wireless telegraph which transmits messages halfway around the
world at six million miles per hour, making utterly obsolete the Pony Express
and its concomitant "Wild West" socioeconomic behavior-patterning. The
greatest evolution-producing revolutions are complex and take the longest to be
What I hoped I had made clear in Critical Path is that the
inherently half-century-long design science-revolution phase of attainment of
universal economic success has been successfully completed and now needs only
the bloodless socioeconomic reorientation instead of the political revolution to
exercise humanity's option to "make it" for all.
I hoped that Critical Path made clear that fifty-three years ago I
anticipated today's transition of humanity from 150 nations operating
independently and remotely from one another to an omni-integrated world family,
with all that socioeconomic transition's conditioned-reflex stressings and
I hoped that Critical Path made it clear that the worlddata
integration I initiated more than a half-century ago has kept growing into a
comprehensive record of the invisible design-science revolution being achieved
only by ever more performance, realized for ever less energy, weight, and time
units invested per each increment of accomplished livingry functioning; and that
more than a halfcentury ago I reduced my design-science,
human-environment-augmenting structures and technologies to full-scale,
physically working demonstrations of their advancement of technological
advantage to economically accommodate an around-the-world pulsatively
deployingand-converging, kinetic society.
I hoped that Critical Path made it clear that if I or some other
individual had not taken these anticipatory initiatives more than a half-century
ago, the comprehensively integrated physical-gaining-for-all now to be
immediately attained simply through inaugurating the mass-production phase of
its already developed prototypings, then the design science revolution could not
now be realizable it would take another fifty years to do the critical path
work, and we now have only fifty months within which to exercise our option to
convert all Earthian industrial productivity from killingry to livingry products
and service systems.
I hoped that Critical Path made it clear that lacking the
accomplishment of the design-science revolution, while also undergoing the
transition into a one-world amalgamation of humanity which we are now
experiencing, humans would have been catalyzed only into a world-around social
revolution of the same bloody historic pattern of revengeful pulling down of the
advantaged few by the disadvantaged many.
I hoped that Critical Path made it clear that the accomplished
design-revolution's prototypes and developmental concepts now make possible for
the first time in history a bloodless social revolution successfully elevating
all humanity to a sustainable higher living-standard than ever heretofore
enjoyed by anyone.
I hope that Critical Path made it clear that despite the reality of
humanity's option to make it for all humanity, my own conclusion as to whether
humanity will do so within the critical time and environmental development
limits is that it will remain cosmically undecided up to the last second of the
option's effective actuation, knowing that beyond that imminent moment lies only
the swift extinction of humans on planet Earth.
The critical path I committed myself to in 1927 was and as yet is that of
applying all technology and science directly to accomplishing the mass-produced
components for advanced livingry for all humanity, instead of continuing to
invest the advanced science and technology inadvertently falling out of the
weaponry industry into the livingry tools industries. This critical path was
inherently a fifty-year path.
I will now summarize the last few pages quickly.
The social revolution potential now can for the first time in history realize
economic success for all and a comprehensive world enjoyment that involves not
revengefully toppling the economically successful minority but elevating all
humanity to a sustainable higher level of existing and interacting than any
humans have heretofore either experienced or dreamed of.
The now-potentially-to-be-omni-successful social revolution could never
before in history have been realized. Until 1970 there had always been enough
physical resources but not enough metaphysical resources (of experience-won
know-how) on our planet to render the physical technology capable of taking care
of everyone at a sustainable, eminently successful level of physical well-being
bloodlessly accomplished and sustainable without the coexistence of either a
human slave or working class. Until 1970 it had realistically to be either you or
me, not enough for both. Since 1970 it has become realistically you and
me all else is automated acceleration to human-race extinction on planet
As we know, when the on-foot soldiers at Crecy stuck their pikes into the
ground, points slantingly upward and forward, to impale the bellies of the
advancing charges of cavalry, it was social revolution, brought about by
designscience revolution. Thus armed with their newly-sciencedesigned pikes, the
long-overwhelmed many on foot began to gain emancipation from being overwhelmed
by the horse-mounted few. Design did it.
Both the word revolution and the words social revolution
have many meanings, from that referring to the mechanical revolutions of a wheel
to the social changing of life-styles which occurred when the horse-mounted and
-carriaged few, with their many on-foot servants, stable boys, grooms, coachmen,
and the vast slums they drove through were almost entirely design-science-obsoleted
by the automobile-mounted many covering vastly more miles and having only a
diminishing self-servant-class functioning as some of the riders became the
auto-production workers, gas-station attendants, etc.
Greater justice and economic improvement for the many is not always the
result of social revolution. The Europeans' guns overwhelming of the American
Indian bow-and-arrow weapons was in most ways a retrogressive social revolution
implemented by design-science revolution. It is always the design revolution
that tips the social scales one way or the other. However, sum totally the
combined design and social revolutions ultimately favor the many. Between 1900
and today, 60 percent of humans in the U.S.A. have attained a standard of living
far in advance of those of the greatest potentates of 1900 while concurrently
doubling the life-span of that fortunate 60 percent.
Never before in all history have the inequities and the momentums of
unthinking money-power been more glaringly evident to so vastly large a number
of now literate, competent, and constructively thinking all-around-theworld
humans. There's a soon-to-occur critical-mass moment when the intuition of the
responsibly inspired majority of humanity, in contradistinction to the angered
Luddites and avenging Robin Hoods, faced with comprehensive functional
discontinuity of nationally contained techno-economic system, will call for and
accomplish a world-around reorientation of our planetary affairs. At this
critical moment will occur a realization by the responsibly inspired majority
that the adequate capacity of the invisible technology to sustainingly support
all humanity depends on all the resources, physical and metaphysical, being
always and only employed for all of world-around humanity as a completely
integrated techno-economic system operating entirely on its daily income
principally of Sun-emanating energy. The integrated world-technoeconomic system
purpose is in contradistinction to a union of 150 autonomously operating
nation-states, as with the United Nations. All this can now be comprehensively
commonwealth-accounted in time-energy work units. All this can provide
regenerative-initiative accommodating access of human individuals to the ever
multiplying commonwealth-techno-economic facilities. The degree of
individual-initiative computerized access to the commonwealth facilities will be
predicated on the demonstrated performance and sustained integrity of the
individual's ever-forwardly-anticipatory designing competence.
I have been a deliberate half-century-fused inciter of a cool-headed,
natural, gestation-rate-paced revolution, armed with physically demonstrable
livingry levers with which altogether to elevate all humanity to realization of
an inherently sustainable, satisfactory-to-all, ever higher standard of living.
Critical threshold-crossing of the inevitable revolution is already underway.
The question is: Can it be successfully accomplished before the
only-instinctively-operating fear and ignorance preclude success, by one
individual, authorized or unauthorized, pushing the first button of
chain-reacting all-buttons-pushing, atomic, raceirradiated suicide?
The only happily promising recourse of each human individual is to our
highest intellectual faculties and their mutual, ego-deflated, unselfishly
loving preoccupation with comprehensivity and our employment of the most
powerful tools of all:
- the family of generalized scientific principles governing the operational
design of eternally regenerative Universe itself;
- comprehending and effectively employing synergetics, with the books Synergetics
and Synergetics II presenting the comprehensive omni-image-able
mathematical coordinate system employed by nature, thus avoiding the
mentally debilitating, vastmajority-of-humanity-excluding quasimathematical
coordinate system employed by present-day science;
- comprehending the major objectives and operating strategies of the major
opposing power structures of world politics, their present status quo and
probable future trending;
- comprehending the fundamentals of economics, of wealth vs. money, of the
principal features and functioning of industry, banking, and securities;
- comprehending the educational system in general as well as the discovery
of the shortcomings of science, engineering, and education in general;
- synergetically comprehending "what it is all about," as
propounded in Critical Path and this book, Grunch of Giants,
and discovering what our options are to confront imminent race disaster; and
- the individual discovery of God by a vast majority of human individuals
not the discovery of religions, but the discovery that each and every
individual has an always-instantly-open,
direct "hot-line to God": i.e., the weightless, nonphysical
communication occurring teleologically between the differentially limited,
weightless, nonphysical, temporal, special-case mind of the individual human
and the comprehensively integrated, macro-micro unlimited, weightless,
eternal, generalized mind of God.